Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1962 v8 No 1 SpringActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.


Plant Sciences in the Land Grant System of the United States'


University of Wisconsin

A century is a short span in the history of a nation. Nevertheless, the past hundred years encompass the major period in the development of education and research in the United States and their application to the advancement of the nation and the enlightenment of the people. It was during this important era that we came of age and gained stature among the community of nations.

The concepts and principles set forth by the founding fathers, including public support for universal education, formed the firm foundation for this century of building. The national enactment which led to the establishment of Land-Grant colleges and universities in 1862, and the continued increase in public support of education and research, furnished the trained builders, ample materials, and the reinforcements for the structure of the nation. State and federal tax-supported universities and experiment stations—first founded in the United States—were a major medium through which cooperation between education and research advanced aggressively over the past century. The working philosophy of joint attack by scientists, educators and administrators to the solution of national problems evolved over these years. Many of the leaders involved in this cooperative endeavor were closely associated with the Land-Grant system, especially in the agricultural and engineering sciences. This hundred years also saw the birth and development of modern plant science in this country, fostered in large part by the associated state and federal supported institutions.

Along the rapidly expanding frontier of the latter half of the nineteenth century, our forefathers' greatest concern was with subsistence. The plant science which followed them West was largely concerned with the systematic study of plants collected during the exploration of North America. This involved not only our own taxonomists, but those of other countries who came to learn the plants of the newly opened colossus that was North America. The great names included E. J. Palmer, Asa Gray, George Engelmann, John Torrey, E. L. Greene and Sereno Watson, all of whom maintained professional ties with colleagues in Europe. In the early days of the past century, most of the plants collected on the frontier were sent to Eastern centers for study, but gradu-

' Paper commemorating the Centennial, 1862-1962, of the Land-Grant Colleges and State Universities. The tragic death of Professor Dickson in the Philippines on February 28, 1962, prevented his final revision of this paper. The editor has therefore made some changes in the text, but has tried to avoid any changes of meaning. ally, as the frontier was tamed and funds were made available for the establishment of Western educational institutions, more and more of these studies were performed in situ. The great taxonomic tradition that is associated with the University of Nebraska and C. E. Bessey, and with W. J. Beal at Michigan Agricultural College, are examples of the kind of botanical work which came to be centered in Western, Land-Grant institutions. The pioneering studies of T. J. Burrill on bacterial diseases of plants at the University of Illinois is another excellent example of early plant science at a tax-supported Western college.

As these Western Land-Grant colleges grew, their scope of education and research in plant science widened, the latter often under the impetus of their associated agricultural branches. Accelerated exploration and settlement brought increased demands on agriculture with coincident new problems to be called to the attention of the plant scientists. New studies were initiated : basic at first to supply new information, applied later on when the new data were brought to bear on the resolution of agricultural questions. The growth of botanical science in the United States paralleled that in Europe, and progressed from studies mostly concerned with plant systematics to include studies in function, form, and variability in plants.

Investigations on indigenous crop plants paralleled the introduction and use of Old World crops during the second half of the ninteenth century. Although agriculture evolved and expanded rapidly prior to the Civil War, growth intensified subsequently for reasons mentioned above, and the in-creased use of mechanized farming methods. The period immediately following the Civil War saw rapid dissipation of our natural resources including prairie and forest soils; grasslands and timberlands were recklessly misused. New practical demands were placed upon the plant sciences and related biological disciplines. A need was felt for unity in policy and concerted national effort leading to the solution of these regional problems. These factors, and the demand for technically trained personnel to cope with the agricultural agonies brought on by the rush westward, were perhaps important motivating forces behind the Morrill Land-Grant Act.

In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the United States was dominantly rural and regional in philosophy. Universities and colleges newly established under state constitutions were struggling to meet the problems involved in



Smithsonian Institution
Washington 25, D. C.


HARLAN P. BANKS    Cornell University

NORMAN H. BOKE   University of Oklahoma

SYDNEY S. GREENFIELD    Rutgers University

ELSIE QUARTERMAN    Vanderbilt University

ERICH STEINER    University of Michigan



CHANGES OF ADDRESS: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr. A. J. Sharp, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 16, Tennessee.

SUBSCRIPTIONS for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $2.00 a year. Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Business Manager, Dr. Lawrence J. Crockett, Department of Biology, The City College, Convent Avenue and 13gth Street, New York 31, New York.

MATERIAL SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION should be typewritten, double-spaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

Because of the press of academic and civic commitments, coupled with a major share of the responsibility in a new building program at Rutgers University, Editor Sydney S. Greenfield has asked to be relieved of his duties in conjunction with the Bulletin. Nevertheless, Dr. Greenfield is still vitally interested in our publication and requested to be placed on the Editorial Board. It is with pleasure that I extend to him the sincere thanks of the Board and the membership of the Botanical Society of America for his sincere and conscientious good work over the years in which he acted as editor.

higher education. Rural leaders were clamoring for assistance for agriculture, and college administrators were be-ginning to recognize the place of the university in supplying this assistance. In their third annual report of 185o, the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin included the following statement:

"Agricultural Science, like all other sciences, can only be acquired by study and research. The discipline of the school is essential to its acquistion. Without it, the farming processes fall to the low level of routine and drudgery. With it, agriculture rises to the dignity of a profession, and indicates its undoubted claim to stand not only in the front rank of the experimental arts, but side by side with the learned professions in interest and honor as well as in profit."

Similar vision and courage were expressed by other educational governing boards of this period. Because of the utter dependence of agriculture on plant science, these publicly supported institutions became centers for training personnel in this discipline. From simple beginnings, the plant sciences in the Land-Grant colleges expanded into several fields in the early part of the twentieth century to include morphology, physiology, genetics, plant pathology, and microbiology, and the allied agricultural pursuits of horticulture, forestry, agronomy, and soil science. Outstanding departments of botanical sciences came to be associated with Land-Grant colleges and universities.

Basic investigations in genetics led to improvements in crop plants and supplied information utilized in breeding plants for resistance to disease. Studies in mineral nutrition of crop plants prompted the improvement of chemical fertilizers. Research on plant auxins and the effect of day length on flowering responses have had important practical applications in floriculture. Improvement in cattle feeds has resulted from investigations on the nutritive value of plants and plant products. Pure studies on the biochemical activities of microorganisms have had profound effects on industries dependent upon the fermentive activities of fungi and bacteria. Whole new series of therapeutically beneficial products have come from research on soil microorganisms. These are but a few of the major lines of research progress enumerated merely to illustrate the influence of plant science activities at Land-Grant institutions upon the lives of our citizens. To go into detail on any one of these would be quite beyond the scope of this brief paper.

Progress in plant science and its present welfare do not justify complacency. The current status of pure and applied botany merit critical analysis, and coordinated, constructive study in planning for the future. General education in plant science below the graduate level was sorely neglected in Land-Grant and private educational institutions during this century of research progress. Biologists recently have faced this educational deficiency, cooperatively defined a new dynamic curriculum of important subject matter, and tested its validity through experimental use in representative high schools. Similar studies are in progress for use in the elementary schools, and also in universities and colleges.

It is felt that plant scientists early dissipated their effectiveness, directive influence, and economy, by fragmentation in-to independent societies based on specialized disciplines and their application. Cooperation and coordination, without regimentation, are essential to wise decisions. Recent at-tempts to unite plant science groups indicate that further ground may be lost before this need is fully realized. The glaring weakness in plant science illustrated during the past century is lack of cohesion and its unfortunate, direct effect which diminished its rightful role in helping guide national policies and development.

Today, publicly sponsored research in the plant sciences in the United States is in danger of curtailment in funds, both in the basic and applied phases. The presence of food and fiber surpluses owing to the unique application of science to produce high yields, complicated by political and economic manipulation, along with the inability of urban industry to employ all of the superfluous farm workers, are the combined forces that jeopardize the continued, generous support of the Land-Grant system. Basic knowledge—the spring from which all practical advancement flows— must accumulate slowly, well in advance of anticipated use. A solid front of plant scientists, well unified in purpose, is needed to bring to the attention of legislators the urgent need for continued support of plant science in Land-Grant institutions to provide for a continued flow of basic information.

Research in the plant sciences presents a complexity of unknowns to challenge the best minds in the century ahead. Basic concepts are unfolding that demand cooperative in-


vestigation by men of many disciplines. Each must be free to explore to full capacity in his field of choice. Yet, each must coordinate his findings with those obtained from al-lied investigations to provide sound conclusions, and to pre-sent comprehensive interpretations of procedures and results. Cooperative educational and research endeavor evolved under the Land-Grant system during the past century. Further expansion and perfection of such cooperation, and its application to the solution of the numerous, complex basic and applied problems, will be essential in the future. Continuance of this kind of cooperative education and research will doubtlessly remain the forte of the Land-Grant college during the next century.

Botanists and Teaching in Pakistan


Brooklyn College

During the past summer it was my good fortune to teach a summer course in botany at Dacca University in East Pakistan. The course was part of a program modeled after the U. S. National Science Foundation Summer Institutes and was arranged by the Pakistan Government and the Asia Foundation. Fourteen such institutes in a variety of fields have been held during the past two summers. In each case the courses were taught by a group of three persons—two Pakistani professors and a foreign professor. Though it was not prearranged, we three in botany complemented one another—cytologist, geneticist, and morphogeneticist. The Asia Foundation, which arranged for the presence of the foreign professors, also generously supplied current text and reference books that were invaluable in the work of the summer. The general purpose of the institute was to bring a selected group of Pakistani participants into contact with newer botanical developments and techniques, and to improve their potential as teachers of botany.

Our group, composed of teachers from colleges and universities from both wings of Pakistan, was enthusiastic, hard-working, and eager to learn. All had earned M. Sc. degrees in Pakistani or Indian universities and most held teaching positions in colleges which correspond roughly to junior colleges in the United States (see scheme). Two were demonstrators (the lowest academic rank) from two of the Pakistani universities. Their ages ranged from 25–35. We found their knowledge of the descriptive and classical aspects of botany was in general very well developed and reflected their prior training and experience. They did not, however, have a working knowledge of more recent information, particularly in plant physiology and biochemistry, genetics, experimental taxonomy, and morphogenesis. We therefore endeavored to present certain rudiments of these fields during the eight-week course.

There are, according to our rough estimate, about loo professional botanists at work in Pakistan, mostly with M. Sc.

lI owe my sincere thanks to Prof. A. S. Islam of Sind University, Hyderabad, Pakistan, for suggestions and helpful reading of this paper. degrees. Several have had master's or doctorate training in British, German, or American universities, and increasing numbers are coming to the United States for graduate work.


New Pakistani School System

Elementary School and Lower Secondary School

Ten years duration

Higher Secondary School

Two years duration

Degree College Course

University Course


Three years duration


Three years duration


Meant for average students


Meant for brighter students


Teaches "pass" course


Teaches "honors" course


Requires three subjects plus


Requires one major and two


minors, plus English


Awards B.A. or B.Sc. degree


Awards B.A. or B.Sc. degree




Leading to M.A. or M.Sc.


Leading to M.A. or M.Sc.


Two year curriculum


One year curriculum


Only one subject


Only one subject


No minor


No minor

Grading System

Pass mark:   50 per cent through 59 per cent

Second division: 6o per cent through 74 per cent

First division:   75 per cent or over

The large portion of this group teaches botany in colleges or universities, and the remaining few botanists are engaged in the agricultural research institutions. We also estimated that the six Pakistani universities have each produced a minimum of 20–30 M. Sc. graduates in botany in the past five years. It would seem obvious that most of these students do not enter the conventional professional fields open to botanists after graduation, but must find a livelihood in some other area where jobs are more plentiful. One, for example, is now a high official in the police department of the city of Dacca. I also heard of Ph.D.'s with foreign training leaving Pakistan for lack of suitable appointments in the scientific field.

The M. Sc. degree is roughly equivalent to the B. Sc. in the United States, and a special paper or thesis based on re-search is required. Their M. Sc. degree represents perhaps more extensive, but not necessarily more advanced, training in the major field, and results from earlier specialization without the breadth of knowldge generally required of liberal arts and science students in this country.

Biology, as a subject introductory to botany or zoology, is unknown at the college or university level. General concepts integrating the two disciplines, especially at a cellular level, are nearly unknown. The over-all background of M. Sc. students is poor or completely lacking in organic or biochemistry, I found, and this creates a considerable barrier to the appreciation of a modern approach to the life sciences. At the same time the more enthusiastic teachers and students are aware of their deficiency and are eager to bridge the gap. Students are particularly desirous of completing their education by obtaining a graduate degree in the United States. I should be pleased to provide names and recommendations, if anyone has positions available that could be filled by worthy candidates in taxonomy, genetics, or physiology.

A syllabus system is followed in the colleges and universities. The syllabi are composed by a committee at the


university under the chairmanship of the professor of the department. A few department heads from colleges subordinate to the university are also represented on the committee. As might be expected, the syllabi reflect the interests and training of the members of the committee and may not indicate a modern approach to botanical science.

At Dacca University there were few currently published books available in the library; journals were there, however, in fair supply. The book supply program of the Asia Foundation (see October, 1961, Plant Science Bulletin) is of untold value in the academic life of Pakistan as well as of other Eastern countries, especially for the smaller schools, as our participants were eager to attest.

Examinations which follow the syllabi closely are con-ducted once a year by the departmental examiner appointed by the university authorities. Until last year, the college teachers, and even the university teachers, had little or no say in the rating of their own students, except for laboratory examinations—the practicals. As new procedure, teachers are now allowed some 25 per cent of the total rating of their students; the other 75 per cent is still within the province of the university. Teachers in the colleges must now hold a mini-mum of five examinations in their subjects in an academic year, and grades allotted in these exams constitute the 25 per cent of the total markings. Also, a student is required to pass separately in the college examinations held by the teacher and the written examination held by the university. If the Education Commission finds that this system operates successfully, the teachers will be given a 5o per cent responsibility in rating of the students.

Deficiencies result from distinct lack of modern equipment and shortage of properly arranged laboratory space. This would seem to me as important, or more so, than any lack of know-how on the part of professional staffs. Micro-scopes and electronic equipment, glassware, etc., are so ex-pensive and difficult to obtain, and require a variety of government import permits. This problem is compounded by the ravages of a humid tropical climate. Maintenance and storage facilities are poor or non-existent, and equipment may lie idle for months or longer for lack of some simple part, deteriorating all the while. The situation is not helped by the system of laboratory assistance in use: many servants, called bearers, each with his own small responsibility, which may or may not be carried out when most necessary.

It is unfortunate that there is so little inter-departmental interest in the matter of equipment and supplies. With cooperation between chemistry and botany, for instance, a university might at least manage a single air-conditioned laboratory where essential research equipment might be properly cared for and used to advantage by all concerned. Grant administrators will eventually have to recognize air-conditioning as a laboratory prerequisite in the tropics, especially for maintenance of equipment.

Faculty spirit is deficient in the colleges and universities. A teacher may never in his entire career have the opportunity to advance to a professorship, or even become a reader (Ranks are demonstrator, lecturer, reader, professor.) Pro- motion depends upon seniority rather than ability. Further, following the European or English system, there is only one professor in each department—the chairman. The prospect of years in the same rank, and at low pay with no advancement of responsibility, is in itself not conducive to high morale among the members of a teaching staff. Teaching loads are generally high and may even run over 20 class hours a week. Employees of the various government colleges have a further difficulty if they wish to study abroad for a higher degree. Leaves-of-absence are not easily obtained, and unless the teacher is confirmed by government administrators (equivalent to our tenure), he must resign his position in order to go abroad for higher studies. There is no guarantee that as good a position will be available upon his return to Pakistan.

With the gradual expansion of the whole educational system, the possibilities for teachers should vastly improve. There is still little or no money or facilities for educating the great mass of people. However, over the coming ten years education will eventually become compulsory, and general literacy will slowly be achieved. At present teachers are treated by high officials as though they were objects of pity, and there is no particular esteem for them in public opinion. Much greater prestige, income, and influence are enjoyed by men in the higher government positions that approximate the level of college or university faculties in the academic field. I was asked on several occasions about the relative status of teachers and government employees in the United States and how teachers' salaries compared with those in civil service. Being a teacher in Pakistan requires a high degree of dedication, since it is so slow and difficult for one to improve his lot.

Visits to a number of research institutes set up by the Pakistan Government were possible during my stay in East Pakistan. The role of the botanist is impressive in each of these places. The Tea Research Institute in Srimangal is faced with problems of seed selection, the analysis of soils of potential tea growing areas (3 per cent expansion per year required of estate owners by government decree), and trials of new shade plants and tea varieties. Also of special interest are studies of a parasitic alga, Cephaleuros, which grows one year and fruits the next, destroying the bark and stems of the tea shrubs. The Tea Research Institute is considering the possibilities of establishing other crops, such as vanilla and coffee, under estate conditions.

The Jute Research Institute near Dacca is involved in fertilizer studies, seed storage problems, trials to produce new varieties by irradiation and various hybridizations, and at-tempts to control and describe a number of diseases and in-sects. The isolation of special strains of retting bacteria has caused significant improvements in the preparation of jute fiber. This has been of great value in the recovery of fiber from the bases of the stalks—a tough area usually producing a product of poor quality. The selected strains of bacteria not only ret the fiber so it is usable, but also bleach it so that quality is comparable to, or better than, some higher grades of jute.


The Rice Research Institute near Dacca, which is also concerned with fiber crops, particularly cotton and ramie, is promoting a program of improving the local cultural practices. The tropical varieties of rice that can be grown in Pakistan do not produce as well as temperate strains. Since this is offset only in part by improved farming, there is an at-tempt, by hybridizing and backcrossing, to improve the yields of various rice varieties during the seasons—particularly Aman rice, the short-day winter rice which comprises one of the two main crops. The institute is also trying to consolidate numerous varieties, to discard poorer types, and to develop strains for deep water, and varieties that will grow in brackish water near the tidal estuaries. It is quite fascinating to see rice that will grow in 15–17 feet of water.

Dacca was once famous for exceedingly skillful weavers who could weave cotton into extremely light and fine cloth. It was called "Dacca muslin" and was so delicate that a piece measuring one by ten yards weighed only about three ounces. One could read newsprint through five thicknesses of the cloth. Unfortunately, the cotton they used has now been lost to culture for many years. An attempt is being made genetically to reconstruct an equivalent cotton variety.

The Agricultural Fruit Farm has a variety of projects, mostly the introduction and trials of new cultivars of pine-apples, mangoes, sesame, peanuts, and other fruit, oil, and seed plants. The native types are often definitely inferior, and farmers have never before had the opportunity to in-crease production by the use of superior varieties. The same situation exists in types of vegetables available. As a single example, a virus-resistant variety of okra would provide a significant improvement in this popular vegetable.

The Forest Research Institute in Chittagong is faced with a number of problems from plywood construction to re-forestation. The staff would even like to find a use for the ubiquitous, obnoxious, yet beautiful water hyacinth in the manufacture of pressed wood. Paramount is the need for an up-to-date descriptive flora and a key to the microscopic anatomy of woods of various shrubs and trees. Botanists in East Pakistan must still generally refer to Sir Joseph Hooker's Flora of British India, published in 18941 The opportunities for classic descriptive taxonomy alone are amazing. There are virgin forest areas in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazar, and elsewhere, that have hardly been explored. A major project is the mapping by air of all forest areas and the estimation of timber resources. Many forests are hardly accessible except by water and with the expenditure of great effort. The building of the large dam at Kaptai on the Karnafuli River will back up an enormous lake and pro-duce some 400 miles of rivers and streams that will enable a tremendous forest area to be broached for the first time for commercial purposes.

There is generally a drive to exploit all natural resources for cash return and improvement of the economy. A botanist can only hope that some of this land will be set aside to re-main in virgin condition for parks and study before it is too late, and that sound conservational practices can be adopted right from the beginning. On a trip up the Karnafuli we were impressed by the amount of wastes already being dumped into the water by the new paper mill that depends upon the bamboo groves and forests of that area. There was talk of digging up Pakistan's unique coral island of St. Martin in the Bay of Bengal to supply limestone needed in cement manufacturing, but fortunately it is not very accessible to the mainland.

Two other institutes were approved by the government only during the past summer. One will be devoted to the search for and cultivation of medicinal and drug plants. The other will be responsible for the development of a coconut industry.

The future for Pakistani botanists looks promising over the long view. With a population of 40 million in East Pakistan and 50 million in the West Wing, the role that the present loo professional botanists could eventually play in the educational life and agricultural economy of the country is practically unlimited.

Botanical Opportunities on
Barro Colorado Island,
Canal Zone Biological Area


Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

The Canal Zone Biological Area is a unique tropical station which combines ready access to a protected, relatively untouched forest with nearby laboratory facilities and library resources. The area is located on Barro Colorado, a small mountain top turned island, created when the Rio Chagres was dammed to form Gatun Lake during the construction of the Panama Canal. It is three miles across and has a land surface of nearly 4,000 acres. Owing to the many ravines and small valleys which dissected the mountain top, the island has over 25 miles of intricate coast line most of which is approachable by land or water.

Botanically, Barro Colorado is as thoroughly known as any area of comparable size in tropical America. Since 1920, many botanists have visited the conservancy, and their plant specimens have formed the bases for a number of publications describing the plants of the island. The salubrious climate of the central isthmian region is conducive to the growth of an abundant vegetation and complex flora, with many more species represented than in any region of like size in continental United States. In contrast to the situation in many temperate forests, no pure stands of trees occur on Barro Colorado, and one acre may support as many as eighty species of woody plants. In Standley's Flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama (1933), about moo species of flowering plants, 90 different ferns and fern allies, and 175 lower forms of plants have been recorded. Even so, it is reasonable to assume that the island will yet yield further new species of plants, since recent collections by the author have turned up several interesting plant species, little known previously.


Pittier, in 1918, considered the valley of the Chagres to be one of the few regions in the Canal Zone that then still contained virgin timber. Recent evaluations by visiting botanists estimate that half the forest is in the mature state, and that the remainder is second growth about 6o years of age. Nevertheless, even to the casual visitor, it is evident that the vegetation of the island has been little disturbed for many years. This is indicated by the numerous, small forest-loving species of palms and tree ferns that abound, and which are unable to adapt themselves to the upset conditions following recent cultivation. Furthermore, the great size of some of the trees would seem to indicate a prolonged period of growth with little influence by man. Lastly, the area has been protected since 1923 when the Governor of the Canal Zone designated it as a preserve. By Act of Congress, the Canal Zone Biological Area was established in 1946 as a bureau of the Government under the administrative aegis of the Smithsonian Institution.

The forest vegetation of much of the Isthmus of Panama is not tropical rain forest in the technical sense because there is a dry season during the winter months when the rainfall may be only 10 to 15 inches. Some parts of Panama, especially in the central provinces of Code and Veraguas, comprise degraded savanna land characterized by hard packed, unfertile soils which support drought-resistant grasses and scrubby shrubs (Matthews and Guzman, 1958). In other regions, however, the remainder of the year is exceedingly wet, and rainfall may be in excess of loo inches in the western mountains and along the Pacific coast of the Darien near Colombia. Since the temperature throughout lowland Panama is generally moderate to high, the available moisture be-comes a most important factor in determining vegetation. Furthermore, the total amount of annual precipitation is probably of less importance to the vegetation than its seasonal distribution. One result of this seasonal distribution of rain-fall is that areas of Panama which might support a true tropical rain forest (other conditions being conducive) produce other forms of vegetation depending upon elevation, soil quality and physical condition, proximity to the sea, and so forth. Thus, on Barro Colorado Island, the vegetation might be classified as semi-evergreen monsoon forest. In such a forest formation, the taller trees lose their leaves during the dry season and they are generally of lower stature than trees in the true, evergreen rain forest. Also, there are fewer of the abundant woody epiphytes and parasites which characterize the rain forest.

According to Cain and Castro (1950) tropical forests can usually be divided into four layers, and Pittier (1918) many years ago used this same classification in his discussions of the forests of Panama. Although these four layers do not exist in all tropical forests, they are of sufficiently widespread occurrence to justify this scheme of description. The first, or highest layer, consists of emergent trees. These are scattered throughout the forest and have most or all of their crowns exposed above the main, closed canopy. On Barro Colorado emergent trees are conspicuous and can be seen clearly when approaching the island by boat. Cavanillesia platanifolia,

Bombacopsis quinatum (Bombacaceae), and species of Ficus (Moraceae) are the more common emergents.

The second layer of the typical, four stratum, tropical forest is represented by the uppermost closed story, or main canopy. On the island, there are numerous species in this layer, with no one comprising more than 10 to 15 per cent of the total stand. Generally, these trees are slender with columnar trunks that seldom branch until reaching the region of the relatively small crown.

The third woody layer is composed of so-called under-growth trees and tall shrubs which usually do not exceed a height of 40 feet. The stem diameter of these plants is mostly less than four inches, and for the greater part, this layer is dominated by many species of the ubiquitous Rubiaceae and Piperaceae with a broad sampling of plants belonging to a wide variety of other families.

The fourth layer comprises small shrubs and seedlings and seldom reaches more than five feet in height. In the heavily shaded areas this layer may be almost non-existent. Though the upper two tree layers on Barro Colorado exhibit an important deciduous element, the lower levels are completely evergreen. Apparently these smaller plants are less affected by the seasonal drought conditions than are the upper level plants.

Numerous herbaceous plants occur under the woody layers. These usually grow where the canopy allows the penetration of small shafts of sunlight. Also, man-made clearings and wind-throws open the canopy so these plants can survive. Many broad-leaved heliconias (Musaceae) with brightly colored, floriferous bracts are found in such clearings. In wet areas of the forest floor there are dense thickets of Aechmea magdalenae, a plant related to the pineapple, supporting thick, spinescent leaves four to five feet long.

In their classification of forest layers in the tropics, Cain and Castro have also set forth other elements of the vegetation. These they grouped into climbing plants and epiphytes. The climbing plants, or lianas, are a very conspicuous part of the vegetation of Barro Colorado Island. Many of the longer vines reach high into the upper canopy and clamber over the emergent trees. Consequently, a tree which may appear at first sight to bear highly colored flowers may only support a blooming liana in its branches. Many kinds of epiphytes (and parasites) are also common. These plants which grow on the trunks and branches of trees exist with-out any direct attachment to the soil. They require only support from their host and usually are specially modified in some way to obtain needed moisture and nutrients. The vascular epiphytes are a characteristic feature of the vegetation of Barro Colorado and include several plant families. Orchids are by far the most showy of the epiphytes, but the bromeliads with brightly colored bracts also provide splashes of color high in the trees.

A substantial acquaintance with tropical plant families can be rapidly secured (and in comparative physical comfort) by botanists from the temperate zone during a several-week visit to Barro Colorado. The herbarium is newly renovated and contains an excellent sampling of the plants growing in


the forest and along the shores. A completely new insight will be gained, for, instead of finding representatives of familiar temperate plant families, whole new vistas will be unfolded by association with plants of Flacourtiaceae, Melastomaceae, Piperaceae, and Lecythidaceae, rather than Fagaceae, Ericaceae, Pinaceae, and Ranunculaceae. Of special interest will be the occurrence of woody plant families known almost exclusively as herbs in temperate regions. Instead of Houstonia and Galium, Rubiaceae will mean Faramea, Genipa, and Alseis. Instead of the slender members of Poa and Danthonia, Gramineae will mean bamboos with arborescent culms and tough, twining, stems forming impenetrable thickets. Common in open clearings on the island are Compositae which become robust, woody shrubs. Violets will no longer be only of the shrinking kind, for Rinorea is a small tree which is a common component of the third layer of the forest. (Further, specific information on Canal Zone vegetation can be found in Johnston, 1956.)

Besides providing an easily acquired familiarity with a tropical American vegetation and flora, opportunities for re-search in plant taxonomy, ecology, and physiology also exist on Barro Colorado. This is especially true of cytotaxonomic investigations, a field of study only barely touched in the tropics. Series of flower bud fixations can easily be acquired over a several-week visit to insure obtaining the desired states of meiosis so necessary for studying chromosome morphology and for securing accurate chromosome counts. With laboratory and library near at hand, the plant physiologist will find new and exciting avenues for research, for most physiological investigations have previously been centered in the temperate zone and are based largely on non-tropical plants. The chance to combine controlled field studies with laboratory research on tropical plants will pro-vide challenging spheres of activity in plant physiology. Be-cause Barro Colorado is a protected area, the plant ecologist can set up field plots and observational sites which will re-main undisturbed, and to which he can return for data-taking season after season.

Many unusual plants are found on Barro Colorado Island. Among these is the strangler fig, represented by Ficus costaricana, which starts life first as a small epiphyte and continues to grow as such until the roots reach the ground. Once secure in the soil, the plant grows rapidly and entwining roots produce many lateral branches which encircle the host in a deadly embrace. Later, the dead host decays leaving as its specter the gray-barked fig now standing on its own spidery "legs."

Ant-plants, or myrmecophytes, always provide an interesting, if not painful, experience to botanists trained in the temperate zone. Much has been written about the associations between plants and ants, and one recalls the painstaking observations of Irving W. Bailey and William Morton Wheeler, some of which were made on Barro Colorado. The bullhorn acacia is a low, unobtrusive shrub which might go completely unobserved were it not for the viscious-looking, red-brown thorns which do indeed appear to be miniature bull's horns. But, it is not really the tips of these thorns that produce all the pain, for they can be avoided; rather, it is the tiny ants which dwell in these taurine outgrowths. The slightest movement of the plant excites hordes of angry ants which surge forth through pores near the tips of the thorns to inflict the unwary with injections of formic acid. Each set or thorns houses a separate colony of ants which feeds on the sweet secretions produced by unfolding young leaves. Other plants such as Cecropia (Moraceae), a soft-stemmed tree, and Triplaris (Polygonaceae), a slender tree with hard, dark wood, also host ant colonies, but in the central cavity of their stems. The ants associated with these genera of plants also may inflict painful irritations to the botanically unsuspecting.

Whether relief is needed from ant-bites, sunburn or more serious discomforts, first-aid is available at the station head-quarters situated in a large clearing on the north side of the island. Here there are several cabins and a large dormitory for lodging, electric lights, fans, a central dining room, showers, and other conveniences. Although many investigations require no laboratory other than a roof, or equipment other than a notebook, there is a large, new, air-conditioned laboratory building for indoor work. In this same building also are housed a 3,000 volume library which subscribes to a dozen botanical journals, the small but comprehensive herbarium, laboratory supply room, dry storage rooms, and ample working space. Glassware, preservatives, mounting sheets, and other supplies can be purchased from the stock-room. Limited equipment, such as plant presses, compound and dissecting microscope, binoculars and spotting 'scope, 4 X 5-inch camera and tripod, calipers, ladders, ropes, jungle hammocks, tools, and dugouts, may be borrowed. In addition, wood, wire, glassware, and materials for improvising equipment are available. Other supplies may be purchased on the mainland.

Scientists accredited to the Canal Zone Biological Area may also carry on investigations on the mainland in an area recently made available for the use of the bureau. Ecologically this terrain is a complete contrast to the island and field studies of an entirely different nature may be made there. The island may also be used as a headquarters for scientists who wish to conduct investigations in nearby Panama.

Persons seeking further information about the Area should write to: Dr. Leonard Carmichael, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, Washington 25, D. C.


CAIN, S. A., AND G. M. DE O. CASTRO. 1959. Manual of vegetation analysis. Harper ,Sc Brothers. New York.

JOHNSTON, I. M. 1956. Vegetation sections in C. R. McCullough, Terrain study of the Panama Canal Zone with specific reference to the Ft. Sherman area and vicinity. Department of Engineering Research. N. C. State College, Raleigh.

MATTAEWS, E. D., AND L. E. GuaroAN. 1958. Los suelos y la agricutura de los llanos de Cock'. Servicio Interamericano de Cooperacidn Agricola en Panama, Panama.

PITTIER, H. 1918. Our present knowledge of the forest formations of Panama. Jour. Forestry 16: 76-84.

STANDLEY, P. C. 1933. The flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Contr. Arnold Arboretum 5: 1-178.


Book Reviews

Laboratory studies in general botany. WILLIAM M. CARLTON. Illus. The Ronald Press Company, New York. $4.50.

It is not clear whether this manual is meant for a semester course in general botany or for a year course. From the author's remarks in the preface it is assumed that there is probably meant to be considerable leeway in the type of course for which the manual is intended, depending upon geographic location, length of the course, number of class meetings per week, and, perhaps, even the selection of text-book.

The manual is an exceptionally complete one, covering the structure and physiology of higher plants, genetics, and a rather thorough survey of the plant kingdom. Considering the size and scope of the manual, one cannot help being impressed with the efforts of Professor Carlton in assembling and presenting such a mass of material. Certainly, one who has been exposed to a general botany course in which all of the exercises are covered would have an enviable background in the plant sciences.

There have managed to creep in, however, a number of errors of fact (e.g., Spirogyra is not considered to be a colonial organism by most botanists) ; misleading diagrams (e. g., the transverse section of the aerial stem of Psilotum is one very near the tip of the plant and not quite representative of the "typical" sections available from most biological supply houses) ; awkward grammatical constructions (e. g., "The tangential section is cut lengthwise the stem ...") ; misleading statements (e. g., "Note the apparent lack of intercellular spaces [in the palisade layer of the leaf]"); and poorly reproduced photomicrographs. It is hoped that these inconsistencies will be corrected in subsequent editions.

A criticism of a number of current manuals, not aimed at this one in particular, involves the relative "permanence" of these printed books which cannot be revised constantly. It is becoming increasingly difficult to teach a general course because of the rapidly changing emphasis in botany, and one must always strive to make the laboratory material as interesting, significant, meaningful to the student, and up-to-date as possible. Furthermore, there are no two schools which conduct laboratories in an identical fashion. Only by building a laboratory around the situation in which the botany instructor finds himself can he devise an "ideal" manual for his course. Thus, I feel it is really impossible to utilize effectively a manual assembled for conditions at one institution at another. True, most authors allow for variations based on local conditions, but a good manual should be tightly knit, with no superfluous material, and molded around only one course at one place—a course which has been evolving for some time. The manual should be revised every year or, better still, after every time the course is given. Admittedly, it is much easier to use a published manual, but the easiest way is not necessarily the best way pedagogically.

Another criticism of this manual, and a host of others, is based on the fact that the same type of material keeps appearing in them—it is simply reshuffled or described in a slightly different way. We are in need of a bright, new, fresh approach. I do not mean that we should automatically eliminate old material simply because it is old. Its value should be seriously analyzed, and if it is found to contribute toward sound botanical knowledge it should be retained. I do question, however, the actual value of keying out fruit types, or of testing for various kinds of foods in different plant parts. The time is ripe for someone to think of presenting really new and significant material, not simply new ways of saying the same old things.—THEODORE DELEVORYAS, University of Illinois.



James Geere Dickson was born February 7, 1891, at Yakima, Washington. He was married to Leah Dodds in 1915 to whom four children were born. He received his B. S. degree from Washington State College in 1915, and in 1916 enrolled at the University of Wisconsin where he received the Ph. D. degree in 1920. While still a graduate student, he was appointed an Agent of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointment he kept until his retirement in 1961. Immediately upon receipt of the Ph. D., Dickson joined the staff of the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin and was promoted to a full professorship in 1926. His areas of research specialization were in diseases of cereal and forage crops, breeding for disease resistance, disease physiology, and pathogen genetics, fields in which he published many technical papers and two texts. Few per-sons in plant pathology have been privileged to influence as many young men in their profession as did J. G. Dickson. Students from all over the world came to study in his laboratories, and he guided 65 through their doctorate training. Many former students occupy key posts of responsibility in research institutions and in industry.

The University of Wisconsin is known for its interdepartmental cooperative research spirit, and J. G. Dickson did much to forge this concept. His broad biological interest and innate spirit of cooperation dictated that this be so. His re-search and graduate training programs were closely cooperative with the Departments of Agronomy, Bacteriology, Biochemistry, Botany, and Genetics. Likewise, he was an integral part of a cooperative program with the U. S. Department of Agriculture throughout his professional career. He maintained cooperative relations with former students or colleagues in every area where mutual problems existed.

Industry has also received much from Dickson's professional contributions. He initiated research an barley quality in the United States at the University of Wisconsin in 1934 at the request of industry. Under his guidance this research has expanded over the years, and in 1949, the Federal Barley and Malt Laboratory was constructed in Madison, Wisconsin. He advised industry in the organization of the Malt Research Institute in 1939 and the Malting Barley Improve-


ment Association in 1945, both of which have been important in barley research and utilization.

J. G. Dickson's classrooms have covered the world. In the past to years, at an age when most people reduce their scope of activities, he extended his teaching, research, and service to agriculture to far-flung areas of the world. In Canada, Latin America, Alaska, the Philippines, India, and Europe, his name is known and respected for his knowledge and interest in international agricultural problems, and for his willingness to make himself a part of them. He was possessed with incredible energy and motivation and, even though retired, he died on February 28, 1962 with his hands firmly on the reins of a full program at his home base, as well as in the world at large.

Dickson's professional services were not restricted to plant pathology. After serving as President of the American Phytopathological Society in 1953, he began a long tenure of service to the American Institute of Biological Sciences. From 1954–1957 he served as Representative of the A. P. S. to the Council of the A. I. B. S. These were very critical years in the development of A. I. B. S., and Dickson became one of its chief spokesman. Following this period, he served as President of A. I. B. S. and was elected to an unprecedented second term. During his tenure as president, he travelled widely in the interest of A. I. B. S. and its expanding program.—GLENN S. POUND, The University of Wisconsin.


Professor-Emeritus Lester W. Sharp of the Department of Botany, Cornell University died on July 17, 1961, in Nuevo, California after a long illness. Professor Sharp received his B. S. from Alma College in 1908. He studied for two years at The Johns Hopkins University, and then transferred to the University of Chicago where he received his Ph. D. in 1912. For postdoctoral work he was associated with Gregoire at The University of Louvain. Subsequently his entire teaching career was spent at Cornell from which post he retired as Professor Emeritus of Botany in 1947.

Dr. Sharp organized one of the first courses in cytology to be offered in an American university. The polish, depth, and clarity of his lectures are reflected in his two textbooks Introduction to cytology and Fundamentals of cytology both of which have been widely used in this country and abroad. The former was translated into a German edition and the latter into a Spanish edition.

Dr. Sharp was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and the Gamma Alpha Graduate Scientific Fraternity. He was Vice-President of the American Society of Naturalists in 1924, Secretary of the Program Committee of the International Botanical Congress in Ithaca, 1926, Vice-President of the Botanical Society of America in 1929 and President in 1930. He served on the Editorial Boards of The American Journal of Botany, Stain Technology and The Botanical Re-view. He was awarded an honorary D. Sc. by Alma College in 1930 and by the University of Louvain in Belgium in 1957. In 1958 he was awarded a Certificate of Merit, the highest award of the Botanical Society of America.

Dr. Sharp's pioneering work in cytogenetics early attracted the interest of outstanding students in botany and genetics, and his students or associates included McClintock, Beadle, Rhoades, Creighton, and Randolph. In addition to being an outstanding teacher, Sharp was a warm and sincere counsellor and friend. He was able completely to lay aside his academic cloak on suitable occasion and become immersed in his hobbies of music and photography. Widely known and respected as the author of numerous meritorious papers in scientific journals, Sharp's wit as well as writing ability were also superbly displayed by two presentations in a lighter vein. One was his retiring address as President of the Botanical Society. This bit, entitled "A nuclear century," was published in Scientific Monthly 34: 322–329. 1932, and contains a lively poetic review of studies on the nucleus. The other, a complete hoax, was a seminar presentation with a graduate student, Cuthbert Fraser, of Eoornis Pterovelox Gobiensis, a most unusual bird from the Gobi Desert. The hoax was subsequently printed in a form resembling a doctoral dissertation. It is still available from James P. Heath, Department of Natural Science, San Jose State College, California.

Lester Sharp will live long in the memories of those who were fortunate enough to have been associated with him. He aptly portrayed the astute scientist of his time.—HARLAN P. BANKS, Cornell University.


Professor Victor M. Cutter, Jr., 45, Head of the Department of Biology at The Woman's College of the University of North Carolina, died on February 26, 1962 in Greensboro. Born in Quiriqua, Guatemala of American parents, Dr. Cut-ter received his A. B. degree from Dartmouth College in 1938, and his doctorate from Cornell University in 1941. He came to the Woman's College in 1952 as Professor of Biology and Head of the Department. Previously he had been Associate Professor of Microbiology at Yale University, Instructor of Botany at Cornell University, and Lecturer in Botany at the University of Minnesota.

Dr. Cutter's special interest was in the cytology, genetics, physiology and taxonomy of the fungi. He held successive grants from the National Science Foundation for research on the genetics of fungi, and other grants from the American Cancer Society. Alone, and in collaboration with others, he published a number of research papers in his field. He was a member of Sigma Xi and Phi Kappa Phi, and the Botanical Society of America, Mycological Society of America, Torrey Botanical Club, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Association of Southeastern Biologists, and New Hampshire, New York and North Carolina Academies of Science.

News and Notes



next closing date for receipt of basic research proposals in the life sciences is May 15, 1962. Proposals received prior


to that date will be reviewed at the summer meeting of the Foundation's advisory panels and disposition will be made approximately four months following the closing date. Proposals received after the May 15, 1962 deadline will be re-viewed following the fall closing date of September 15, 1962. Inquiries should be addressed to the Biological and Medical Sciences Division, National Science Foundation, Washing-ton 25, D. C.


June 12–13 at the New Life Sciences Building, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. For further information contact Walter G. Rosen, Department of Biology, Marquette University, Milwaukee 3, Wisconsin.


that the officers of the Society for 1962 are: Arthur Cronquist, President; Mildred E. Mathias, Chairman of the Council; Lawrence Heckard, Secretary; and Richard Pohl, Treasurer. The publication of a membership list was authorized by the council and it has been distributed to the membership. Extra copies may be obtained from the Secretary. The council elected to "Retired Membership" status, Professor Sara Bache-Wiig, Dr. Walter C. Muenscher and Mrs. Ruth Ashton Nelson. The Society has again set up a committee to assist in the review and evaluation of the A. I. B. S. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Program. The Cooley award for the best taxonomic paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society went to Dr. Wallace R. Ernst for his paper, "On the family status of the Fumariaceae."


for advanced predoctoral study at The New York Botanical Garden will be available for the summer of 1962. The stipend is $800. Work under this appointment may begin any time after June i and should continue for approximately 3 months. Graduate students in mycology whose research program might require the use of the herbarium, laboratory, and library of the Garden, are especially urged to apply for this scholarship. Field work can be combined with studies at the Garden. The scholarship is under the supervision of Dr. Clark T. Rogerson, Mycologist and Curator of Cryptogamic Botany. Nominations or applications should be sent before April 15 to the Director, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York 58, New York.


from the National Science Foundation, three types of awards for summer research and study: 1) Postdoctorate for research —stipend $900, 2) Predoctorate for supervised research—stipend $400, and 3) Postgraduate for training in field biology —$300. Preference is given for studies concerned with the biota of the region. Application blanks for these awards may be secured from Dr. James L. Riopel, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

The Department of Botany of The University of Tennessee and the Naturalist Service of the Great Smokies will


This will be held in the Smokies on April 26–27 and will consist of the usual guided botanical hikes and motorcades as

well as bird walks. Persons interested in taking part in this event may write to Dr. A. J. Sharp, Department of Botany, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.


source on the subject, is available free on request. This publication, compiled by Patricia J. Sazegar, contains 178 references and abstracts of literature published during the period 1893 to early 1961 on the influence of nickel on plants other than bacteria and fungi. It can be obtained by writing to the Industrial Chemicals Section, The International Nickel Company, Inc., 67 Wall Street, New York 5, New York.

The Torrey Botanical Club announces the availability of papers presented as part of a special SYMPOSIUM ON FUNDAMENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN PLANT GROWTH in conjunction

with the A. A. A. S. meetings held in New York on December 27, 1960. These papers have been published in numbers 4 and 5 of volume 88, 1961, of the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club as follows: volume 88, number 4 contains "Changing concepts of photosynthesis," Daniel I. Arnon. The remaining papers all appear in number 5: "Fundamental developments in the field of plant growth regulators," John W. Mitchell; "Alteration of plant growth by chemicals," N. E. Tolbert; "Antimetabolites and plant growth," Thomas H. Jukes; "Test-tube studies on flowering: Experiments with the Lemnaceae," William S. Hillman; "Photo-periodic control of flowering," H. A. Borthwick; "Plant-animals as experimental tools for growth studies," S. H. Hutner; "Recent progress and the goals of plant tissue culture," Walter Tulecke.

Individual copies of these numbers are available singly for $1.50, or both for $2.75. Orders should be placed with Howard W. Swift, Manager of Publications, The Torrey Botanical Club, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York 58, New York.

The Development Section of the Botanical Society of

America will hold a SYMPOSIUM ON THE TEACHING OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT at the annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences in Corvallis, Oregon in August. The symposium is being co-sponsored by the Teaching Section of the Botanical Society and the National Association of Biology Teachers. Topics to be discussed will include seed germination, the bean hypocotyl, leaf discs, induced differentiation, root growth and development, foliar sprays and growth regulation, light and hormones in development, growth of pollen, and tissue and organ culture.


The appointment of DR. EDWARD F. ANDERSON to the Whitman College (Walla Walla, Washington) faculty for the fall of 1962 has recently been announced. Dr. Anderson, a graduate of Pomona College and the Claremont Graduate School, will be Assistant Professor of Biology specializing in botany. Presently, he is on the faculty of the Department of Botany at Pomona College. Dr. Anderson has recently received a Huntington grant-in-aid to study the taxonomy of desert plants.

Word has recently been received from the veteran Illinois botanist, Dr. V. H. Chase of Peoria Heights, Illinois, that


his aunt MRS. AGNES CHASE, now retired from the Smithsonian Institution has been unanimously elected to a fellow-ship in the Linnean Society of London, which was founded about 1788 by James Edward Smith, a young man who had purchased the collections of Linnaeus. During the past 15o years there have been elected about 4000 Fellows. The list includes the names of the majority of notable students of the natural sciences, particularly botanists and zoologists as well as many eminent physicians, surgeons and explorers.

Mrs. Chase was born in Illinois in 1869. She is one of the world's leading authorities on the Gramineae, the large and complex family of grasses. For most of her 92 years, Mrs. Chase has lead the quite life of a scholar at the Smithsonian Institution studying those plants of the greatest importance to mankind, the grasses. She has worked not only in this country but also in Brazil, Venezuela, and Europe. In addition to her own work, she has stimulated many young botanists to high endeavor and success. Her studies have great value not only for pure science but also for applications in agronomy, genetics, ecology, forestry, range management and soil conservation. She was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Illinois on June

14, 1958-

DR. SHERWIN CARLQUIST has recently received a grant from the National Science Foundation which will enable him to pursue his studies on the genus Scaevola (Goodeniaceae). Because this genus is most wide-spread in Pacific regions, Dr. Carlquist expects to depart in June and spend most of his forthcoming sabbatical year surveying the plants of this genus on the islands of the Pacific Ocean. Dr. Carlquist is Associate Professor of Botany in the Claremont Graduate School, and a staff member of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in Claremont, California.

DR. WILLIAM R. EvITT, Research Associate at Jersey Production Research Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, has been appointed Professor of Geology at Stanford University beginning September 1962. There he will begin a program of graduate instruction and research in palynology to include studies in the pollens of the Cretaceous in California.

DR. GEORGE SErrERFIELD of the National Research Council, Canada, will take up a position as Associate Professor in the Biology Department of Carleton University in Ottawa. This change will be effective in July.

DR. V. RAGHAVAN has moved from Princeton University to the Harvard Biological Laboratories in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He will work with Professor John G. Torrey on cultural and biochemical studies on immature plant embryos.

The Honorable Terry Sanford, Governor of North Carolina has written to say that two of our members, DR. JOHN N. COUCH and DR. WALTON C. GREGORY, have been placed on the Scientific Advisory Committee of the State of North Carolina to act as representatives for botany.

PROFESSOR DAVID W. BIERHORST of the Cornell University Department of Botany left for Fiji and New Caledonia early this year. His trip is being supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation and his objective is to collect specimens of angiosperms for the continuation of studies on the comparative anatomy of primary xylem.

DR. WILSON N. STEWART, Chairman of the Department of Botany, University of Illinois, will be on leave-of-absence during the first semester of the 1962-1963 academic year to assist A. I. B. S. with the Yellow Version of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. He will be located at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City which will supply office and library facilities. Dr. Stewart will be the only botanist serving with five zoologists.

Late this month, DR. JOHN J. WURDACK of the U. S. National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, will depart for a 6-8-month botanical collecting expedition to Peru. His main objective will be exploration in the Departamento Amazonas, a botanically unknown region mostly high in the Andes. This work is being carried out partially under the auspices of the National Science Foundation and with the collaboration of the Museo de Historia Natural in Lima.

DR. ROBERT F. THORNE has accepted a position as Taxonomist and Curator of the Herbarium with the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. He will also receive the honorary title of Professor of Botany in the Claremont Graduate School. Dr. Thorne is presently Curator of Vascular Plants at the State University of Iowa in Iowa City.

On Sepetmber 1, 1962, DR. PETER H. RAVEN, currently on the staff of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, will take up a position at Stanford University. He will be associated with the Dudley Herbarium as Assistant Professor of Biology.

The National Science Foundation has appointed DR. WALTER H. HODGE Program Director for Systematic Biology in the Division of Biological and Medical Sciences. Before coming to the Foundation, Dr. Hodge was Head of the Department of Education and Research of the Longwood Gar-dens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. At that time, he also served as special consultant to N. S. F. for tropical biology.

DR. DAVID D. KECK, formerly Program Director for Systematic Biology, has been made Deputy Assistant Director of the Division of Biological and Medical Sciences of the National Science Foundation. Before his tenure with N. S. F., Dr. Keck was Head Curator of the Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden and Assistant Director.

Beginning in the fall semester of 1962, DR. THEODORE DELEVORYAS, Associate Professor of Botany at the University of Illinois, will assume a position at Yale University. His duties will be divided between the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History and the biology department. This History arrangement has been made to facilitate his continuing studies on the famous collection of Wieland cycadeoid fossils which is maintained in the Museum.

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