Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1967 v13 No 3 FallActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

October, 1967   Volume Thirteen   Number Three

Studies of Soil Algae1

Harold C. Bold
Department of Botany
University of Texas

Although it has been known for more than 200 years that algae occur on soil, it was only with the work of Esmarch (1911), Bristol (1920), Bristol-Roach (1926), Peterson (1935), and others that we became aware of their wide-spread occurrence and diversity at various depths and in all kinds of soils. Bristol-Roach's work gave us some clues regarding the facultative heterotrophic nutrition of certain soil algae, and Peterson's work will always remain a classic example of a comprehensive biological analysis of algae in a given soil site.

There are, of course, many contributions in the literature to the subject of soil algae, but only two additional ones are especially relevant to the immediate discussion. In 1955, Starr published a summary of his studies on certain chlorococcacean algae summarizing the criteria which he found to be both useful and valid in classifying such organisms which are so numerous in the soil. In the intervening years, the generic and specific attributes he suggested have proved to be reliable, and they have been extended and augmented, as have his methods of study, to other groups of algae. Because we phycologists are so often called upon to defend the humanistic values, if any, in our work, I would cite among other examples, the important role of blue-green algae of soil in nitrogen fixation and our own (McElhenney, Bold, Brown, and Mc-Govern, 1963) evidence that algae from soils may be important in causing certain allergies; continuing work in the interim has supported the early evidence in this connection, and plans to produce algal proteins for assaying presumed algal allergenic reactions and desensitizing sub-stances from these proteins are soon to be implemented.

Representatives of Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta, and Rhodophyta have been found in soils, and, not unexpectedly, many representatives of these have been recovered by sampling dustladen air (Brown, Larson, and Bold, 1964).

The methods of study of soil algae must, of necessity, be those of the microbiologist. Aliquots of soil samples are introduced into various enrichment and selective media and illuminated. After a suitable interval, the flora which

1Abstract of the address of the Retiring President of the Botanical Society of America, presented at the Society's annual banquet, August 30, 1967, at College Station, Texas.

develops can be studied in a mixed state microscopically, and certain preliminary data can be recorded from such mixed cultures. However, for adequate morphological, physiological, and taxonomic study, it is necessary, as in bacteriology, to isolate the organisms into unialgal and, ultimately, into the axenic state. This is accomplished by the usual microbiological methods of dilution, plating-out, streaking, and spraying, the last, a method used most frequently in our laboratory. In certain instances, direct isolation of the individual cells from a suspension of the mixture will alone guarantee that all representatives from a soil sample have been taken into culture.

This discussion emphasizes largely the unicellular green algae including members of the Chlorococcaceae and Chlorosphaeraceae, although cursory reference is made to representatives of other groups.

With respect to morphological criteria at the generic level, those of Starr (1955), namely, chloroplast form, presence or absence of a pyrenoid, and behavior of the zoospore at quiescence continue to be reliable attributes. At the specific level, cell form, cell size, position of the cellular organelles, and details of zoospore organization are of significance and useful taxonomically.

Because so many of the green algae encountered in the soil are spherical or ovoidal and members of large chlorococcacean or chlorosphaeracean genera, we have been at-tempting in our laboratory to broaden the spectrum of criteria useful (and hopefully also phylogenetically significant) in the classification of the soil algae. These additional criteria may be grouped together as 'supplementary attributes." In obtaining and summarizing the supplementary attributes, it is very important to grow the organisms under standard conditions and, insofar as possible, in defined media so that the data will be reproducible in the laboratories of other investigators. Using such standard conditions, it has been found that the following are useful supplementary attributes: (1). macroscopic appearance (color and texture) of the colonies at differing ages;

  1. configuration (smooth, rough, glomerulare, etc.) of the colony (at magnifications of 14 X) and its texture;

  2. color of the plant mass or colonies upon aging; (4) color of the cells and degree of thickening of the cell walls during the stationary phase of growth; (5) accumulation of such storage products as oil and/or starch; (6) comparative morphology of the cellular organelles as revealed by electron-microscopic studies; (7) response of the organisms to various carbon and nitrogen sources at varying


concentrations in light and darkness under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (8) presence of extracellular enzymes including amylase and certain proteolytic enzymes; (9) differential response of various organisms to "stress conditions" induced by such agents as crystal violet, copper sulfate, and a wide spectrum of antibiotics; (10) evidence from serological studies. Data from the last-cited suggest that our natural classification may, in fact, approach the phylogenetic.

In summary, the student of soil algae must be micro-biological in outlook and in method, while, at the same time, working within the framework of classical botanical systematics.

Literature Cited

Bristol, B. M. 1920. On the algal-flora of some desiccated English soils. Ann. Bot. 34: 35.

Bristol-Roach, B. M. 1926. On the relation of certain soil algae

to some soluble carbon compounds. Ann. Bot. 40: 149.
Brown, R. M., Jr., D. A. Larson, and H. C. Bold. 1964. Airborne

algae: their abundance and heterogeneity. Science 143: 583. Esmarch, F. 1911. Beitrag zur Cyanophyceenflora unserer Kolo-

nien. Jahrb. d. Hamb. Wiss. Anst. 28: 3 Beiheft.

McElhenney, T. R.. H. C. Bold, R. M. Brown, Jr., and J. P. Mc-Govern. 1963. Algae, a cause of inhalant allergy in children. Ann. Allergy. 20.

Peterson, J. B. 1935. Studies on the biology and taxonomy of soil algae. Dansk Bot. Arkiv. 8(9).

Starr. R. C. 1955. A comparative study of Chlorococcum Meneghini and ocher spherical, zoospore-producing genera of the Chlorococcales. Indiana Univ. Science Series No. 20.


Three errors in the "Tachyplant" article that appeared in the last issue have been called to our attention. On page 2 under the column "Characteristics" the headings "Flower" and "Seed" were transposed; in the last entry on this same page two names were incorrectly spelled: "Hunter's" should have been "Hutner's" and "Hellman" should have been "Hillman." If any additional corrections are brought to our attention they will be noted in subsequent issues.


Plant Science Bulletin

Adolph Hecht, Editor

Department of Botany, Washington State University

Pullman, Washington 99163

Editorial Board

Harlan P. Banks, Cornell University

Norman H. Boke, University of Oklahoma

Sydney S. Greenfield, Rutgers University

William L. Stern, University of Maryland

Erich Steiner, University of Michigan

October, 1967   Volume Thirteen

Number Three


Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society

of America, Inc., Dr. Harlan P. Banks, Department of Botany,

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850.

Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Bo-

tanical Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a

year.   Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of

America, Inc." to the Treasurer.

Material submitted for publication should be typewritten, double-

spaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor.   Copy should follow

the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.



Botanical Congress Commemorative Stamps

A committee has been established, with Dr. William L. Stern of the University of Maryland as chairman, to persuade the United Stares Post Office Department to issue a series of commemorative stamps in recognition of the XI"' International Botanical Congress, which is scheduled to be held in Seattle, Washington, in August, 1969.

For the Xtu' International Botanical Congress, held in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1964, four commemorative flower stamps were issued by the British Government. These stamps and their First-day Covers were among the more festive features of this last Congress, and will long be re-membered by botanical philatelists and the many others who appreciated these outstanding mementoes of their visit to Edinburgh.

The present committee is proposing that the Post Office Department authorize one commemorative sheet of 50 stamps in vertical position, with a different design for each horizontal row; five stamp designs on the one sheet. This will permit the production of a stamp bearing a plant motif chosen as typical for each quadrant of the country, plus a fifth depicting the Seal of the Congress. The production in the United States of a multi-design sheet is not novel, for the sheet of U.S. Christmas stamps for 1965 presented four different subjects on as many stamps.

The subjects co represent the four sections have been chosen by ballot, and reflect the careful judgment of per-sons in each area that are knowledgeable of the flora concerned. Designs for the proposed stamps are as follows:

Northeastern United States—the Showy Ladyslipper (Cypripediunt reginae), a well-known Orchid, native of woodland bogs.

Southeastern United States—the Franklinia Tree (Franklinia alatamaha), discovered by Bartram in western Georgia, named for Benjamin Franklin, and although now lost as a member of our native flora is widely cultivated for its showy flowers.

Northwestern United States—the Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menzsesii), perhaps the best-known and most important timber tree in America, and while not important for its flowers, is distinguished by its unusual cones.

Southwestern United States—the Ocotillo, known also as Coach-Whip and Vine-Cactus (Fouquieria splendens), a showy desert shrub with scarlet flowers borne in great profusion.

Dr. Stern and his committee recognize that alternate choices for the proposed stamps could as logically be chosen, but they hope that all concerned will unite in sup-port of the decisions that have been made. He is most anxious to receive testimonial letters from individuals and societies for inclusion among the documents which will constitute his committee's proposal to the Post Office Department. PIease send your letters of support to: Dr. William L. Stern, Chairman, Commemorative Stamp Committee, XI IBC, Department of Botany, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742.


Backlog of the American Journal of Botany Drastically Reduced

In reviewing and projecting the affairs of the American Journal of Botany for the annual meeting, it seems desirable to summarize pertinent facts for the members who did not attend. At the 1966 annual meeting the Council of the Society authorized preparation of two "double" issues of the Journal in addition to the 10-page increase per issue already projected in order to reduce the backlog of papers. This action was effective in that the backlog was reduced from 12 months or more to 9 months. The November-December (1967) issue sent to the printer in August contains some papers received during March, 1967. Projecting further, all manuscripts on hand as of mid-August, including those revised, those in revision, and those in process and review, can be included in or before the issue of next April. Thus the backlog will have been reduced to 8 months by that time. It may subsequently be possible to reduce publication time even more.

At present (mid-August) completed copy is at hand for only one and one-half issues in 1968. In order to maintain the Journal at its present size a continuous supply of acceptable manuscripts is necessary. If there have been inclinations to send manuscripts to other journals because of shorter publication time, it is hoped that this matter will be reconsidered. It is clear that the requirement for continued support of the Journal by the membership should not be overlooked.—Charles Heimsch, Editor-in-chief, American Journal of Botany.

Maximum Quality Paper for Halftones in American Journal of Botany

During the meetings at Texas A&M University, the Editorial Committee of the American Journal of Botany considered certain needs of the Journal and its publication. The need for improved quality control in printing, particularly for illustrations, was recognized, and the desirability of appropriate representations to the printer for the remaining issues of the current volume was emphasized. As a major step toward further improvement, it was decided to utilize on a trial basis paper of maximum quality for improved half-tone reproduction for the first half of the next volume.

Consideration was also given to a suggestion that the policy of the Journal be modified to provide for the handling of short articles that could be printed with a mini-mum of publication time. In view of the fact that numerous other possibilities for the prompt publication of short articles already exist and the need for additional opportunity in the American Journal of Botany is not clear, it was the consensus that more information should be obtained before considering the matter further.—Charles Heimsch, Editor-in-chief, American Journal of Botany.

C. W. Wardlaw Elected to Corresponding Membership

Professor Wardlaw was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1901 and took the B.Sc. degree with honors in botany, chemistry, and geology. His Ph.D. and D.Sc. degrees are also from

Glasgow. He studied especially mycology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London and taught courses in mycology at the University of Glasgow.

In 1928 Dr. Wardlaw accepted an appointment as plant pathologist at the Imperial College of Tropical Agri-culture in Trinidad where he remained for 12 years, be-coming officer-in-charge of the Research Station. The Macmillan Company published one of his major works, Diseases of the Banana, during that period, and Dr. Ward-law continues to serve as a consultant in diseases of tropical crops.

In 1940 Dr. Wardlaw was appointed to the Barker Chair of Cryptogamic Botany at the University of Manchester where he continued during 18 years to carry on researches and to publish 84 research papers and 3 books in experimental morphology. In 1958 Dr. Wardlaw accepted the George Harrison Chair of Botany at the University of Manchester where he continued research and published a major work, Organization and Evolution in Plants. He retired from the chair in 1966.

Professor Wardlaw is an Honorary Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an Honorary Foreign Associate of the Royal Academy of Belgium, and an Honorary Foreign Correspondent of the Academic d'Agriculture of France. He was Prather Lecturer at Harvard University in 1951, and also undertook an extensive lecture tour of Academic Year Instinues in universities in the United States in 1964, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation. In 1959 McGill University conferred on him the honorary degree of D.Sc. during the International Botanical Congress held in Montreal.

Professor Wardlaw is author or co-author of some 212 scientific publications to date, exclusive of reviews. His principal books are Diseases of the Banana (Macmillan, London. 1935), Morphogenesis in Plants (Methuen, Lon-don. 1952), Phylogeny and Morphogenesis (Macmillan, London. 1952), Embryogenesis in Plants (Methuen, Lon-don. 1955) , Banana Diseases (Longmans, London. 1961), and Organization and Evolution in Plants (Longmans, Lon-don. 1965). He was recently honored on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday and subsequent retirement by the publication of a Festschrift volume with international authorship. This volume (Trends in Plant Morphogenesis, Longmans, London. 1966) contains a complete list of his publications.

Oceanographic Awards

Stanford Oceanographic Expedition 17 will start 3 January 1968 from Monterey and terminate at Guayaquil, Ecuador, on 24 March. During this period, the R/V TE VEGA will concentrate on the biological oceanography of the Galapagos Islands and surrounding waters, and will provide the first part of a comparative study of seasonal fluctuations in selected organisms and processes. A productivity/nutrient survey of the Cromwell Undercurrent to the west of the Galapagos and a survey of upwelling in the lee of Isla Isabella will be concurrently conducted. Applications for this Expedition will be accepted until 15 October 1967, and advance inquiries are encouraged. Applicants may be of either sex, must be research-oriented grad-


uate students or "young professionals" in biology, and should be in good academic standing and excellent physical and emotional health. The Expedition represents an intensive 15-unit graduate-level course in Biological Oceanography given at sea by a faculty of three. Ten NSF awards covering room and board, transportation to and from the research vessel; and full tuition are available. Contact Dr. M. Gilmartin, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California 93950, for further information.

Association for Tropical Biology

The annual meeting and council meeting of The Association for Tropical Biology, Inc., was held in Caracas, Venezuela, June 5-6. Officers for 1967-68 are: President, Dr. A. C. Smith, University of Hawaii; President-elect, Dr. Abraham Willink, Instituto Miguel Lillo, Tucuman, Argentina; Executive Director, Dr. T. R. Soderstrom, Smithsonian Institution; and Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. W. Donald Duckworth, Smithsonian Institution. Newly elected councilors are: Dr. F. D. de Auila Pires, Brazil; Dr. Eft-aim Hernandez X., Mexico; and Dr. Leandro Aristeguieta, Venezuela.

The principal item on the agenda was a discussion of the status of ATB-sponsored symposia to be held in the future. The first symposium on the Biota of the Amazon Basin, held in Belem, Brazil, in June 1966, was a resounding success, and the first two volumes of the proceedings of that meeting are nearing publication. When completed the proceedings will consist of approximately 2,750 pages in seven volumes. Currently in the planning stages are symposia in Hawaii in 1968, Colombia in 1969, and tropical Asia and Africa at later dates.

Further information may be obtained from the Executive Director, Dr. Thomas R. Soderstrom, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, USA.

Plans For Second Edition of

Guide To Graduate Study in Botany

The "Guide to Graduate Study in Botany for the United States" was published by the Botanical Society of America in 1966. This publication provides prospective graduate students with information on graduate education in the plant sciences which is unobtainable in any other publication. In addition to the names and addresses of institutions offering the Ph.D. degree, the size of the faculty and the graduate student enrollment in each department, and the fields of specialization represented in the department, there is an alphabetical listing of botanical faculty giving each member's rank, date of birth, academic degrees, and special-ties, and most importantly a listing of up to five Ph.D. theses or published papers resulting from Ph.D. theses done under his direction during the past 10 years. Copies of the present Guide are available from' the Office of the Secretary at a cost of $3.00 each.

The Office of the Secretary of the Botanical Society of America is now in the process of up-dating this Guide for re-issue in 1968. An effort will be made to include all those departments of Botany, Biology, Plant Pathology, Plant Sciences, etc. that offer the Ph.D. degree in the plant sciences. Those departments which were in the first edi-

Lion will be contacted soon but those institutions which have recently begun to offer the Ph.D. degree and therefore were not included should contact the Secretary of the Society for further information. There is no charge for inclusion in the Guide. Requests for information should be addressed to Dr. Richard C. Starr, Secretary, Botanical Society of America, Department of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 47401.

Awards Presented at Annual Dinner for All Botanists

Darbaker Award

This award for meritorious work in the study of the algae was presented to Dr. Joyce Lewin, Department of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, for her work on the physiology and nutrition of diatoms.

The Henry Allan Gleason Award of the New York Botanical Garden

This award is presented annually to the author of an outstanding recent publication in Botany—usually plant taxonomy, phytogeography or ecology. The 1967 Award was presented to Dr. Sherwin Carlquist, of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, by virtue of his book, Island Life, published late in 1965. In this book Dr. Carlquist has provided a perceptive and beautifully written interpretative synthesis of our modern knowledge and ideas about the factors governing the distribution and the evolution of both plants and animals on oceanic islands, and of the significance of islands to general evolutionary theory. Scientifically accurate, this work is written in language that will appeal to both amateurs and professionals—in fact, to everyone who has an interest in nature.

New York Botanical Garden Award

Presented for outstanding contributions to the fundamental aspects of Botany. This award was presented to Dr. Stanley P. Burg, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, for his work on the role of ethylene in relation to auxin on plant development.

The Cooley Award

The George R. Cooley Award for the best paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASPT was awarded to Dianne Fahselt, Department of Botany, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, for her paper entitled "Chromatographic comparison of anthocyanins in Dicenatra species and hybrids." Dr. Fahselt's paper was based upon work done at Washington Stare University.

Merit Awards

The principal award which the Botanical Society of America gives was initiated in 1956 on the occasion of our 50th Anniversary. At that time awards were made to 50 American botanists whose research and teaching have made outstanding contributions to botanical knowledge.


Since 1956, on the occasion of each annual meeting, Certificates of Merit have been presented to other outstanding botanists.

The following are the recipients of the 1967 Merit Awards:

Dr. Constantine J. Alexopoulos, mycologist, authoritative writer in general mycology, an outstanding teacher; his research in diverse groups of fungi has greatly expanded our knowledge of these important plants.

Dr. William M. Hiesey, ecological physiologist, imaginative experimenter, a pioneer in elucidating the genecological nature of species; he has done much to encourage and help students in all areas of plant science.

Minutes of the Business Meeting, Botanical Society of America

Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas,
August 28, 1967

  1. President Ralph Emerson called the meeting to order at 11 a.m. in the Ballroom of the Student Memorial Center. The number of members present at the beginning of the meeting was 66 and thus constituted a quorum.

  2. The Minutes of the Business Meeting of 1966 as published in the Plant Science Bulletin were approved.

  3. The Secretary, R. C. Starr, presented the election results. These were as follows:

Dr. Arthur W. Galston. President

Dr. Harlan P. Banks. Vice-President

Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Treasurer

Dr. Leonard Machlis, Member of the Editorial Board of the AJB

  1. The Secretary read the amendments which had been circulated to the membership at the time of the Call for Papers in January. These amendments are as follows:

Article II, Section 1.

It is proposed to delete the "and" after Sustaining members, inserting a comma in its place and to add (after Sustaining members) : and (g) student members."

Also to add to Section 1:

(g) Student members. Any student actively interested in botanical work may apply for student membership in the Society by filing with the Treasurer an application in writing together with payment of dues for one year. Student membership may not be held by one individual for more than four years.

(The proposed changes are suggested to recognize in the By-laws the category of student membership and to fix the duration of such membership.)

Article 111, Section 1.

It is proposed to add a sentence at the end of Section 1 to read: "Newly elected officers, except the Treasurer shall begin their terms on January 1 each year; the Treasurer's term shall end on October 31 and the newly elected treasurer shall take office on November 1."

(The proposed addition is suggested for the purpose of de-fining the period during which officers serve and to effect transfer of the treasureship at a more appropriate time of year.)

Each amendment was voted on separately, and both were passed.

  1. The Secretary presented the report of the Committee on Corresponding Members. Professor C. W. Wardlaw of the Uni versity of Manchester was presented as the single candidate for this year. The Secretary read a short biography of Professor Wardlaw after which it was approved unanimously that he should become a Corresponding Member.

  2. Dr. Lawrence J. Crockett. Business Manager of the Americna Journal of Botany, gave a short report indicating that the American. Journal of Botany was in excellent financial condition.

  3. Dr. Harlan P. Banks presented the Treasurer's report. It was proposed and passed that the dues to the Society remain at the same rates as were current in 1966. It should be noted that the Treasurer's reports and the Business Manager's reports for 1965 and 1966 are given in full in the Yearbook of the Society for 1967-68.

The Treasurer reported on the current membership as follows:


Regular members

Student Members

z i isa



Pamily Members


(65 x 2)

Life Members



Rec. Sub. Members



Retired Members



Corresponding Members



Sustaining Members






The addition of a new Sustaining Member through the efforts of Dr. Lawrence Crockett, Business Manager of the Journal, was reported. This new Sustaining Member is The John Wiley Publishers.

8. Dr. Charles Heimsch, Editor of the American Journal of Botany. reported on the activities of the Editorial Office. He pointed out that the office was now up-to-date with manuscripts that were in proper form for publication in the Journal and that at present one could expect approximately an 8-month lapse between the time of submission of the paper and its publication. During the past spring the failure of the Journal ro come out as scheduled was not due to the Editorial Office but to difficulties with the printer. These difficulties have been now remedied and it is hoped that we will not experience them again. Those present at the meeting were advised that the Editor and the Business Manager were investigating the possibilities of improving illustrations through the use of a more expensive paper and en-graving.

9. Various items which had been considered at the meeting of the Council on Sunday were presented by the President for the information of the membership.

  1. The Yearbook for 1967-68 has been compiled in the office of the Secretary and the membership should find it at their homes on their return from the meeting.

  2. The booklet "Careers in Botany" is being re-issued as a result of the work of Dr. Robert Page. The most attractive booklet, in color, will be ready for distribution from the office of the Secretary within the month. As in the past, one to three copies of the booklet will be available without charge. Multiple copies will cost twenty-five cents each.

  3. The "Guide to Graduate Study in Botany" will be up-dated and re-issued by the Secretary's office in 1968.

  4. The present President announced a special meeting concerning the Physiological Section to be held on Tuesday at 8:00 p.m. in the Ballroom. Those interested in the Physiological Section and its relation to the Botanical Society and the American Society of Plant Physiologists were encouraged to attend this meeting.

  5. It was announced that the Botanical Society of America would meet with the AIBS at Columbus, Ohio, in 1968. In 1969 the Botanical Society would hold only a Business Meeting and a Council Meeting at the time of the International Botanical Congress in Seattle. No paper reading sessions would be scheduled, but the membership was encouraged to participate in the Inter-national Botanical Congress.

  6. President Emerson announced that the National Committee for the International Botanical Congress had approached the Botanical Society, along with other plant societies, with the request for financial support of the Botanical Congress. President Emerson was happy to announce that the Council of the Society had approved the sum of S10,000 to be given to the National Committee of the International Botanical Congress.

10. Dr. A. J. Sharp presented a resolution which was passed with. unanimous approval.

"The Botanical Society of America is grateful to the administrative offices of the Texas A and M University, to the staff of the American Institute of Biological Sciences and to its local representative, Dr. Meta S. Brown. for the arrangements and facilities provided for the 1967 meeting."

Upon motion duly seconded and approved, the meeting adjourned at 11:55 a.m.

Respectfully submitted,

Richard C. Starr




Richard M. Klein, Alfred H. Caspary Curator of Plant Physiology at the New York Botanical Garden, has accepted a position as Professor of Botany in the Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401.

Deana Tarson Klein, Assistant Professor of Biology at Hunter College of the City University of New York, has accepted a position as Associate Professor of Biology in the Department of Biology, St. Michael's College, Winooski, V t.

Dr. Olaf I. Ronning of the botanical department of the Trondheim Museum, Norway, has been named Visiting Professor of Natural History and Curator of Botany in the University of Colorado Museum for next year. He will be in charge of the botany section of the University Museum while the curator, Dr. William A. Weber, does research in Australia on a faculty fellowship. Ronning studied at the University of Bergen, and he received a doctorate from the University of Oslo, Norway. He specializes in the study of arctic and alpine vegetation and plants, and he will study these subjects in the Rocky Mountains while at CU.

Walter E. Loomis was evacuated from the Sudan as a result of the Middle East fighting, and has returned to Iowa State University at Ames. He had completed one year of a two-year assignment as Visiting Professor of Botany in Khartoum University.

Book Reviews

Bunning, Erwin. The Physiological Clock. Revised Second Edition. Springer-Verlag, New York Inc., 1967. 167 pages, 126 figures. $3.00.

The first in a soft-cover inter-science series, this book represents an up-to-date survey of experimental findings in the field of circadian rhythms, and successful synthesis of data to point up the unifying principles in this other-wise diffuse area.

Two chapters of the first edition, concerning the effects of chemical factors and the role of different cellular components, have been combined into one chapter entitled "At-tempts towards a Biochemical and Biophysical Analysis." Otherwise, the organization of material remains the same.

The author's statement that recent technological advances have made possible many new developments in this field is supported by the addition of 9 new figures and 197 new titles to the references at the ends of the chapters.

J. Scheibe,

Altman, Philip L., and Dorothy S. Ditrmer. Environmental Biology. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Bethesda, Md., 1966. 694 pp. $15.00.

This newest addition to the series of Biological Handbooks offers a welcome supplementation to the earlier members of the series. Although there is some overlap of the new handbook with Chapter XI (Environment and Survival) of the "Biological Data Book," these handbooks are other-wise quite different in emphasis and subject matter. Topics in the "Biological Data Book" are approached from the viewpoint of processes and characteristics of organisms.

In "Environmental Biology" (with the necessary exception of portions of Chapter X, Biological Rhythms), they are treated from the standpoint of external factors, including some having direct implications for aerospace.

"Environmental Biology" includes much information not heretofore available in handbook form. The subtopics are sufficiently heterogeneous that the data will also be valuable to many scientists outside of the strictly biological fields. The two appendixes listing scientific and common names (cross-indexed) of both animals and plants should be especially useful to the nonspecialist. As with the "Biology Data Book" the highly abridged index in "Environmental Biology" must be used in conjunction with the table of contents. However, it is reasonably easy to locate any included topic.   H, B. Brewer

Vladimir Nikolayevich Sukachev 1880-1967

Russian Academician V. N. Sukachev, born on June 7, 1880, died on February 9, 1967. He was the patriarch of all Russian botanists and foresters. He was well known not only as an outstanding researcher but also as a philosopher who tried to elucidate the operation of nature in understandable terms.

He started to publish his scientific ideas in 1898, when he entered the St. Petersburg Forest Institute. Several hundred of his publications have since appeared not only in Russian but also in many other languages. He grew under the influence of such scientific personalities as G. F. Morozov (ecologist), V. V. Dokuchayev, K. K. Gedroitz (soil scientists), V. J. Taliev, S. I. Korzhinskiy, and N. I. Kuznetzov (botanists).

He was one of the first to organize station studies on the ecology and biology of plants. In 1915 he published "Introduction to a Study of Plant Associations," which later underwent three new editions under the title "Plant Associations."

He was the early chief organizer of the Forest Institute of the Academy of Sciences, reorganized in 1943 and now called the S. M. Kirov Forest Engineering Academy. In this institute in 1919 he laid the foundations of dendrology. This activity lead him into his "Dendrology and Principles of Geobotany" (1934), a book of bibliographic rarity now, which is a profound examination of the theoretical and practical problems of forest study. His plant associations, called also forest types or phytocoenoses, were later holocoenotically amplified as "Sukachevian" biogeocoenoses since 1942 ("An Idea of the Development in Phytocoenology"). His biogeocoenosis is a fundamental ecosystematic unit, basic for the whole hierarchy applied in synsystematics of synecology.

In 1964 with his cooperators Sukachev published "Fundamentals of Forest Biogeocoenology" (Nauka, Academy of Sciences of the USSR), a book that will be translated into many languages. It is and will be a definite milestone in ecology.

In 1914 he published "Bogs, Their Formation, Development and Properties." This approach led him to a study (1936) "The Evolution of Vegetation in the USSR during the Pleistocene Period," by which he demonstrated that he was one of the first in the USSR to employ pollen analysis


for paleographic reconstructions of forests. Later he be-came chairman of the Quaternary Committee in the USSR.

As a plant taxonomist he specialized mainly on the taxonomy of woody plants such as Salix, Betula, and Larix; however, as a good Russian ecologist he knew the whole Russian flora well.

As a forestry leader he also became known for his successful protective afforestation in the semidesert region near the Caspian Sea where forest vegetation would have seemed unable to survive severe natural conditions. In this connection he became more and more deeply involved in the study of soils as one of the principal determining factors in the growth of forest vegetation. With soil science he was in daily contact since his early days in scientific work. Thus already in 1916 he published a critical paper The theory of the sod process of V. R. Villiams (Williams)," which was, many years afterwards, used against him by the dogmatic followers of this controversial Soviet soil scientist. Another deviation from the so-called orthodox dialectic materialism was seen in the fact that Sukachev applied biotic factors for his biogeocoenotic approach. Fortunately, however, Sukachev survived in all these attacks as President of the Forest Institute in the USSR and remained in this position as tire-less inspirer of new ideas and scientific quests.

In 1920 he was elected a Corresponding Member and in 1943 an Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He became honorary head of the All-Union Botanical Society and President of the Moscow Society of Naturalists. He obtained many medals for his scientific work. Twice he was leader of the Russian Delegations, at the International Botanical Congress held in Sweden and at the International Congress of Foresters held in India.

For more than 66 years he has been in the forefront of science and has devoted all of his knowledge to the development of various branches of biological and environmental sciences. He has written scientific articles and textbooks from which many generations have learned and are continuing to learn. Sukachev was an excellent researcher and teacher and above all a person with rare charm, tact, simplicity, and kindness.

V. J. Krajina

University of British Columbia

Botanical Society of America, Inc. Officers for 1968

PRESIDENT: Arthur Galston, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520

VICE-PRESIDENT: Harlan P. Banks, 214 Plant Science
Bldg., Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850

SECRETARY: Richard C. Starr (1965-69), Department of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401

TREASURER: Theodore Delevoryas (1968-72), Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520

PROGRAM DIRECTOR: C. Ritchie Bell (1967-69), Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Anton Lang (1966-68), Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University,' East Lansing, Michigan 48823

William Stern (1967-69), Department of Botany, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740

Leonard Machlis (1968-70), Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720

EDITOR, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Charles Heimsch, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056

EDITOR, PLANT SCIENCES BULLETIN: Adolph Hecht, Department of Botany, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163

BUSINESS MANAGER, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Lawrence J. Crockett, The City College, University of the City of New York, Convent Avenue and 139th Street, New York, New York 10031

Sectional Officers and Council Members
for 1968*

PAST PRESIDENT, 1967: *Ralph Emerson, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720

PAST PRESIDENT, 1966: *Harold C. Bold, Department of Botany, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712

PAST PRESIDENT, 1965: *Aaron J. Sharp, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916


Chairman (1966-68): *Walter R. Tulecke, Department of Biology, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387

Vice-Chairman (1966-68) : Watson M. Laetsch, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720

Secretary (1966-69) : William T. Jackson, Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755


Chairman (1968) : Maynard Moseley, Department of Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106

Vice-Chairman (1968) : Richard Eyde, Division of

(Those persons so marked with an (' ) are members of the Council. The Council also includes the Officers of the Society except those elected co the Editorial Committee.)


Plant Anatomy, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. 20560

Secretary-Treasurer (1966-69) : *David Bierhorst, 228 Plant Science Bldg., Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850


Chairman (1968) : Joseph Ewan, Department of Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118

Vice-Chairman (1968) : Edmund Berkeley, Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412

Secretary-Treasurer (1966-69): *Jerry W. Stannard, Department of History, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80302


Chairman (1968) : O. R. Collins, Department of Biology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202

Vice-Chairman (1968) : Vernon Ahmadjian, Department of Biology, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610

Secretary (1966-69) : Dorothy Fennell, 12301 Park-lawn Drive, American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Maryland 20852

Representative to the Council (1966-69) : *A. W. Barksdale, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York 10458


Chairman (1968) : Charles B. Beck, Department of Botany, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104

Secretary-Treasurer (1966-68) : *Donald A. Eggert, Department of Botany, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240


Secretary (1968) : *Philip Cook, Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401


Acting Chairman (1967-68) : *Tom J. Mabry, Department of Botany, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712


Chairman (1968) : *Roy L. Taylor, Plant Research Institute, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Secretary (1968) : Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., Gray Herbarium, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138


Chairman (1968) : L. Wallace Miller, Division of Natural Sciences, Chico State College, Chico, California 95926

Vice-Chairman (1968) : J. Louis Martens, Department of Biology, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois 61761

Secretary (1968) : *Irving W. Knobloch, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823


Chairman (1968) : *Arthur Langford, Department of Biology, Bishop's University, Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada

Secretary-Treasurer (1966-68) : Robert K. Zuck, Department of Botany, Drew University, Madison, New Jersey 07940


Chairman (1968) : Robert Ornduff, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720

Vice-Chairman (1968) : Arthur Holmgren, Department of Botany, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84321

Secretary-Treasurer (1966-69) : *Watson M. Laetsch, Department of Botany, University of California, Berke-ley, California 94720


Chairman (1967-68) : William J. Koch, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514

Secretary-Treasurer (1967-70) : *Dorothy L. Crandall, Department of Biology, Randolph-Macon Women's College, Lynchburg, Virginia 24504

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