Plant Science Bulletin archive
Issue: 1974 v20 No 1 Spring
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
March 1974 Vol. 20 No. 1
A Western Botanist in Eastern China Sylvia A. Earle 2
A Western Botanist in Eastern China
Sylvia A. Earle
I am far from being the first western botanist in eastern China, and assuredly I will not be the last, but my travels in the People's Republic of China (luring .June, 1973, marked the appearance of the first marine botanist to visit from the "west" in more than 20 years. Reports by Galston and Signer after their 1971 visit to China (Galston, 1971; 1972 a,b,c: Signer, 1971: Signer and Galston, 1972) brought the first direct news in many years about what, has been happening, scientifically, in that country.
I went to China with a 14-woman delegation of the American Women for International Understanding, a group that was formed to help contribute toward understanding and good will among nations through personal contacts with people in other countries. In Canton, Shanghai, Soochow, Tsinan, Peking, and Choukoutien (site of Peking Man excavations) we visited schools, factories, communes, and other places that are often seen by visitors. In addition, efforts were made to accomodate our special interests and to introduce us to people who had similar occupations in China. A high point in our visit came when we were received by Madame Teng Ying Chow (Madame (Thou En-Lai) and six other women who are prominent in China, including the newly appointed Minister of Health, Madame Liu Shing Ping.
The professional interests of our group were diverse, including the arts, education, medical science, economics, communications, and public service. As a marine botanist I wanted to discover what I could about, work being done in systematics, ecology and oceanography; to see the nature of museums; how and where research collections are being maintained, and observe current attitudes about conservation and preservation of rare and endangered species. Two in our group shared my special interest in museums and collections — Caroline Leonetti Ahmanson, a member of the Council and Trustees Committee for the American Association of Museums, and Alison Stilwell Cameron, daughter of the late General .Joseph W. Stilwell, an artist and teacher who was born in Peking and the only member of our group who could converse in Chinese. An account of China's museums and the status of historical collections appears in Museum News (Ahmanson, 1973).
When our group first entered China each of its was asked by representatives from the China Travel Service what we would particularly like to see (luring our visit. The excellent volume, Directory of Selected Scientific Institutions in Mainland China published by the Hoover lnstitul.ion Press in 1970, had suggested to me ghat the best place to seek colleagues in my field would be in various branches of the Academia Sinica (the Chinese Academy of Sciences) and in certain universities. Nearly all in the group indicated a desire to visit universities, but at the top of nay list was a request to meet with members of the Academia Sinica Institutions of Botany, Zoology and Oceanology. I asked if it would be possible to see Professor Tseng Ch'eng-k'uei (C. K. Tseng), a ratan who had long been known to me because of the excellence of his work in my field - the systematics and ecology of marine algae. Dr. Tseng earned his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1942 and has many friends and colleagues in the United Stales but communications were rare after Dr. Tseng's return to China in 1949. For many years no one in the United States had heard anything from him, so I was not optimistic about getting to see him. However, when our group stopped in Tsinan, capital of the province in which the Institute of Oceanology is located, I was told that Dr. Tseng was attending a scientific meeting in the city and that it would be possible for him to come to our hotel for discussions. We spent the evening of June 11 together and most of the next day, usually accompanied by another oceanographer and administrator from the Institute of Oceanology, Mr. Cha Chie-san, and Mr. Liu Tzehan, interpreter and guide from the Head Office of the China Travel Service, Peking (also the interpreter for conversations between Chou En-lai and I)rs. Galston and Sie in 1971). During the discussions (in English) I learned that a visit to the Institute of Oceanology would not be feasible during my stay in China in part because they were not yet prepared to receive visitors.
There are two branches of the Academia Sinica doing oceanographic research, the Institute of Oceanology (formerly the Institute of' Marine Biology) at Tsingtao, Shantung Province, and a smaller South China Sea Institute of Oceanology near Canton, originally a branch of the Tsingtao Institute, but established separately in 1965-1966. The major center for oceanographic work is at Tsingtao where there is a scientific staff of 450 individuals and 300 who are concerned with administration, technical support, or who are sailors. The Institute has a research vessel, the "Venus", 65 m long, 1000 tons, that accomodates a scientific staff of 30 to 40 for cruises of short duration. In addition there are three smaller vessels. Work at the Institute is approximately 60 per cent biological, 40 per cent physical science, some involving geological exploration.
Most of the research in marine biology is of an applied nature. There is emphasis on the cultivation of fishes, crustacea (including the shrimp, Penaeus orientalis). nrollusca (including Mytelis and abalone), and marine plants, especially the kelp, Laminaria japonica and species of Poiphyra. Other work concerns the ecology, morphology, taxonomy and distribution of marine organisms, genetics of algae, the transport of nutrients
and photosynthesis of economically important species of algae, and life history studies. In addition, there is in progress a nationwide systematic survey of the flora and fauna, terrestrial and aquatic, freshwater and marine. Work on algae is projected to include more than 30 parts and involves botanists from various parts of the country. Systematic collections of marine plants as well as marine fishes and invertebrates are housed and curated at the Institute. Collections of freshwater and terrestrial plants and animals, including type specimens, are maintained at the Institute cif Freshwater Biology at Wuhan, Hupei Province as well as in the collections at the Institutes of Microbiology, Botany, and Zoology in Peking. Dr. Tseng expressed interest in obtaining and perhaps exchanging herbarium materials through the Institute. His special interest, in addition to the cultivation and utilization of algae, is in the systematics of Sargassum. He also said that he would like to hear from his colleagues in the United States and to receive their scientific publications. Other aspects of phycology in China are related in a note in Phycologia (Earle, 1973).
From reports that I had heard before going to China, I expected to find little encouragement for basic research. However, although immediate practical results are desired for most scientific efforts, it appears that the long term gains of basic research are also recognized. I asked Dr. Tseng specifically about basic research in China and he replied, "Some institutions must do it. It may be a small percentage of the total research, perhaps only two per cent, but it is necessary. Such research may not be of immediate value today, but we see this as the foundation of science and for the future. The Academy of Science chiefly has to do the basic work for the good of the whole nation and for science as a whole."
At Tung Ting People's Commune near Soochow, I observed some of the practical results of basic and applied research. There, agricultural and aquacultural methods are used by approximately 45,000 people, including more than 11,000 households. The commune has a diversified economy run by 30 production brigades. Eight brigades concentrate on raising grain, 13 raise fruits and tea, and nine produce various kinds of fishes, and freshwater crabs and prawns. In addition, mulberry trees are grown as hosts for silkworms and family vegetable gardens are common. Knowledge of the food habits and behavior of various kinds of fishes has made it possible to cultivate successfully as many as five species of fishes in a single pond, and natural populations of freshwater crabs are enhanced through cultivation and are harvested seasonally. Shieh Wen-hsung, who had been chairman of the commune for two years at the time of our visit, hosted us for a luncheon feast consisting only of foods that had been grown on the commune: prawns, chicken, duck, trout, eels, "silver fishes", chicken and duck eggs, potato salad, green peppers, cucumbers, button mushrooms, green beans, rice, water lily soup, fresh loquats, and tea.
Although there was no opportunity to see natural areas in China, I observed many familiar plants in gar-dens, along roadsides, and in the countryside especially during the visit to the Tung Ting People's Commune and in areas in and around Soochow. An extensive reforestation program is underway throughout China and young trees are obviously becoming established both for eventual use as lumber and as shade trees along road-ways. Pines, sycamores, Catalpa, Sassafrass, Carya, Acer, Magnolia, Wisteria, Liquidambar, weeping willows, and naturally, Ginkgo, were among the trees commonly plant.- ed. Melia azadarach, the China-berry tree, so widely naturalized in the southeastern United States that some facetiously refer to it as "Georgia-berry", is one of the most abundant ornamental trees observed in southeastern China.
Peking is the center for many things in China including scientific activity. More than 150 research institutions are located there including the headquarters for Academia Sinica. My request to see the Institutes of Botany and Zoology was granted and I visited both on June 15. At the Institute of Botany I was greeted by Tien Cho-Po, specialist in plant geography, and was introduced to Hou Hsieh-Yu, plant ecologist and other members of the staff. More than 200 research personnel plus technicians work at the Institute. There are five research divisions: (1) plant classification, including geobotany, ecology and plant distribution; (2) paleontology, including macrofossils and microfossils, with emphasis on those that relate to exploration for coal, petroleum and other minerals; (3) palynology; (4) morphology and cytology, with work on pollen culture and studies dealing with cell fusion; (5) physiology and biochemistry, with work on photosynthesis, plant hormones and herbicides, nitrogen fixation, and food preservation.
Given limited time, I concentrated on the area I know best, the first division, and was very favorably impressed with the large and well-kept herbarium of bryophytes, pteridophytes, and spermatophytes, consisting of more than 1,000,000 specimens stored and curated using traditional herbarium techniques. Excellent vegetation maps are being devised, based on extensive field work. I observed the fine illustrations in preparation for future volumes of the Iconographia Cormophytorum Sinicorum the new inventory of China's flora. Two volumes of the Iconographia, well-illustrated with line drawings, were published in 1972 and three more are expected during 1974. Tomus I has 1157 pages with 1730 illustrations and covers Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and 45 families of Angiosperms; Tomus II has 1312 pages with illustrations numbering from 1731 to 3954 covering an additional 97 families of Angiosperms.
I inquired about the possibility of exchanges of her-barium material and was told that they are interested in this and that a request had been received from the Missouri Botanical Garden that they intended to fulfill.
Eight scientists from the Institute of Zoology met with me and discussed work at the Institute. The director, Professor Ch'en Shih-hsiang, an entomologist trained at Fu-tan University and the University of Paris, said that the present institute had been established in 1962 when the Institute of Zoology and the Institute of Entomology were combined. I asked about work relating to insect control, and whether or not there is concern, as there is in the United States, about the widespread use of pesticides. Dr. Ch'en said that non-harmful methods of pest control were being emphasized, using hormones, physical methods such as ultraviolet light, and microbiological control. He also indicated that studies are being made of chemical pesticides and their residual occurrence in soil and water, and that efforts are being made to decrease their use in favor of other methods.
At the request of several friends in the United States I inquired numerous times during the trip about the occurrence of the large freshwater dolphin known to live in Tung Ting Lake and the Yangtze River system. Few people had heard of this unusual aquatic mammal until I brought the matter up at the Institute of Zoology, and later, with the director of the Peking Zoo. Apparently it is not a common animal but it is known locally and has been put on a list of about 80 species of vertebrates that are protected in China. The list also includes a large alligator, a giant salamander, giant panda, tigers, approximately 30 other mammals and 45 species of birds. I did not learn of any plants that are specifically protected but some habitats have been set aside as natural areas, particularly in the western part of the country. Most of eastern China is inhabited or cultivated, and it appears that little remains of the naturally occurring vegetation except in areas unsuitable for farming.
Our group was invited to see several primary and middle schools, but we visited only two universities, Fu-tan University in Shanghai and Tsinghua University in Peking. At Fu-tan, I was greeted by Professor Tan Chiachen (C. C. Tan) from the Institute of Genetics and chair-man of the biology department. Dr. Tan received his Ph.D. from California Technological Institute in 1936 but has been out of contact with most of his former colleagues in the United States for many years. He indicated that he would welcome communications and publications directed to him at the Institute of Genetics, Fu-tan University, Shanghai, P. R. C. Professor Tan confirmed what I had heard previously, that scientific publications had reached China from other parts of the world during recent years, although the rest of the world had little information about what has been happening in China. Together we toured the excellent library, and, in addition to the Chinese volumes, 1 was impressed with the quality and quantity of foreign publications, many in English. Since 1971, English has become the required second language (Chinese, of course, is first) studied in all schools from the second grade through the universities.
During group discussions with students at Tsinghua University in Peking, we heard that students spend about 15 per cent of their time on political study, five per cent on physical training, including study of military affairs and agricultural production, and 80 per cent on their vocational studies. There is a university in each province in China that educates students selected from that province. In addition, there are national universities such as Tsinghua University, that draw students from all parts of the People's Republic of China. Several excellent ac-counts have appeared about the universities in China (Signer and Galston, 1972; Galston, 1972 a,1972,c; Yang, 1972). For an understanding of higher education in China, several articles published in China are helpful. One such is a pamphlet called, "Strive to Build a Socialist University of Science and Engineering" printed in 1972, and another, "A New Type of University" published in the July, 1973 issue of the magazine, "China Reconstructs." These and other publications from China, including scientific journals and books, can be obtained domestically from the bookstore, China Books and Periodicals which has three branches: San Francisco (2929 Twenty-fourth street, 94110), Chicago (900 W. Armitage Avenue, 60614), and New York (95 Fifth Avenue, 10003), or can be ordered directly from Peking through the bookstore Guozi Shudian, Mail Order Department, P. 0. Box 399, Peking.
Scientific journals that have recently resumed publication include Scientic Sinica, Scientia Geologica Sinica, Acta Botanica Sinica, Acta Zoologica Sinica, Acta Microbiologica Sinica, and Acta Entomological Sinica. All are in Chinese with English summaries except Scientia Sinica, which also has a foreign edition entirely in English.
Wherever we went in China we asked about the possibilities of future exchanges of information and people, and everywhere received encouraging responses. In practice, visits to China from the United States will probably continue to be difficult for the general traveler and communications to be sporadic. The outlook is more promising for those who wish to go to China for scholarly purposes. Recent reports from the Committee on Scholarly Communications with the People's Republic of China, a group formed in 1966 jointly by the National Academy of Sciences, the Social Sciences Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies, indicate a small but growing number of scholarly visitors from China to the United States and the reverse. Up-to-date information about exchanges is contained in an article by Harrison Brown (1974) and in the China Exchange Newsletter, published by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the P. R. C. and available through their office at the National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418.
Ahmanson, C. 197:3. China is a living museum. Museum News 52(4): 17-25. Brown, If. 1974. Scholarly exchanges with the People's Republic of China. Science 18:3)4120): 52-54.
Directory of Selected Scientific Institutions in Mainland China. 1970.
lIuocer Institution Publications Series 96. Stanford, California. 469 pp. Earle, S. 197:3. A report on phycology itt China - 197:3. Pltycologia
Galston, A. W. 1972 a. The Chinese unviersity. Natural History 81 (Aug.-Sept.) 18,20-2:3.
. 1972 b. Down on the commune. Natural History 81 (Oct.): 50-59.
. 1972 c. The university in China. 13ioscience. 22 (Apr.):217-220. Signer, E. 1971. Biological science in China. Science for the People 3( Sept.): :3-5, 15-19.
Signer, E. and A. W. Galston. 1972. Education and science in China. Science. 175 (.Ian. 7): 15-2:3.
Yang, Chen-Wing. 1972. Education and scientific research in China. Asia. 26 (sHmmer): 74-84.
Biographical Sketches and Obituaries in Publications of the Botanical Society of America — An Index1
Ronald L. Stuckey and W Louis Phillips
The history of any organization is derived from the contributions and achievements of its individual members and associates. Scientific contributions of such individuals are usually recorded in biographical sketches or obituaries. Two publications of the Botanical Society of America contain 68 biographical sketches and obituaries between 1915 and 1972; six in the American Journal of Botany in volumes 2-15 (1915-1928) and 62 in the Plant Science Bulletin in volumes 4-18 (1958-1972). In the early years of the Botanical Society of America biographical sketches appeared in the American Journal of Botany through 1928, but the Society published no biographical notes for the next 30 years. The idea of a newsletter, or what eventually became the Plant Science Bulletin, was considered by an appointed committee in 1925, but it did not come to fruition until 1955 when Harry J. Fuller edited the first issue (Tippo, 1956). At that time in an article giving various suggestions of topics to be discussed, Fuller (1955) stated that the Bulletin would not emphasize the topic of biographies of noted botanists. That viewpoint has changed, however. The first biographical sketch that appeared was the one of Charles Edwin Bessey published in volume four, issue five, which was also the first issue edited by Harriet B. Creighton who succeeded Professor Fuller. The first obituaries, those of Harley Harris Bartlett and Ezra Jacob Kraus, were published in volume six. Since then biographical notes have appeared in every volume, except volumes ten and fifteen. The peak volume was number seven, with eleven biographical notes. In order that information in these biographical notes may be more readily accessible to the Botanical Society of America members, scholars, and historians, the accompanying index has been prepared.
In the Plant Science Bulletin only those articles that are clearly evident as feature articles on botanists, biographical sketches, obituaries, and biographical resumes of elected Corresponding Members are indexed. Personalia items noting retirements, promotions, andlor honors are not indexed. In the Index the biographical notes are listed alphabetically by the name of the botanist, with his or her life dates as given in the article or from some other information source. The volume, page number(s), and the date that follow are understood to be for those biographical notes published in the Plant Science Bulletin. Biographical notes published in the American Journal of Botany are specifically designated. The author of the biographical note is the last item in the reference.
All of the biographical notes published in the Plant Science Bulletin have appeared since the compilation of the "Barnhart Biographical File." This card file reference contains biographical information to the late 1940's on an estimated 44,700 botanists by John Hendley Barnhart, which was published in a three-volume work (Barnhart, 1965). The Index below is a sample of those we have now completed for 70 current (or recent — since about 1880) American botanical journals and represents the kind of biographical information available in our card files. A similar index was earlier prepared by the senior author for the biographical sketches and obituaries in publications of the Ohio Academy of Science (Stuckey, 1970).
1Contribution from the Department of Botany (Paper No. 829) and the Herbarium, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43310
ATKINSON, GEORGE FRANCIS (1854-1918) Am. J. Bot. 6: :301-308. 1919. W. G. Farlow, Roland Thaxter. L. H. Bailey, and Henry M. Fitzpatrick.
BAILEY, IRVING WIDMER (1884-1967) 13(4): 7. 1967. Adriance S. Foster.
BARTLETT, HARLEY HARRIS (1886-1960) 6(3): 7. 1960. Anonymous.
BESSEY, CHARLES EDWIN (1845-1915) Am. J. Rot_ 2: 505-518. 1915. Raymond J. Pool; Plant Sci. Bull. 4(5): 7-8. 1958. Raymond J. Pool.
BUNNING, ERWIN (1906- ) 7(4): 3. 1961.
CAMP, WENDELL H. (1904-196:3) 9(2): 8-9. 1963. Anonymous.
CATCHESIDE, DAVID (1907- ) 7(4): 3. 1961.
CHASE, AGNES (1869-19631 9(4): 10. 196:3. Anonymous.
CHASE, VIRGINICUS IIEBER (1876-1966) 12(3): 11. 1966. Anonymous.
CLARK, DANIEL GROVER (1900-1962) 8(4): 7-8. 1962. Harlan P. Banks.
CLELAND, RALPH ERSKINE (189.2-1971) 17(3): 27-28. 1971. Adolph Hecht.
COLLINS, FRANK SHIPLEY (1848-1920) Am. J. Bot. 12: 54-62. 1925. W. A. Setchell.
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc. Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 26514.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Manuscripts intended for publication in PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN should he addressed to Dr. Robert W. Long, editor, Life Science Bldg. 174, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 31620. Announcements, notes, short scientific articles of general interest to the members of the Botanical Society of America and the botanical community at large will be considered for publication to the extent that the limited space of the publication permits. Line illustrations and good, glossy, black and white photographs to accompany such papers are invited. Authors may order extracted reprints without change in pagination at the time proof is submitted.
Materials submitted for publication should be typewritten, doublespaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.
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CONANT, GEORGE H. (1896-1970) 17(1): 10. 1971. Anonymous.
COOLEY, JACQUELIN SMITH (1883-1965) 12(1): 8. 1966. Anonymous.
CORNER, EDRED JOHN HENRY (1906- ) 14(4): 3.
CUTTER, VICTOR MACOMBER, JR. (1917-1962) 8(1): 9. 1962. Anonymous.
DICKSON, JAMES GREERE (1891- ) 8(1): 8-9. 1962.
DIMOND, ALBERT E. (1914-1972) 18(1): 7. 1972. Anonymous.
EAMES, ARTHUR JOHNSON (1881-1969) 13(4): 1-3. 1967. Carl L. Wilson.
EVENARI, MICHAEL (1902- ) 7(4): 3. 1961.
FARLOW, WILLIAM GILSON (1844-1919) Am. J. Bot. 7:173-181. 1920. A. F. Blakeslee, Roland Thaxter, and William Trelease.
FLORIN, RUDOLF (1894-1965) 11(3): 11-12. 1965. C. A. Arnold.
FREY-WYSSLING, ALBERT (1900- ) 7(4): 3. 1961.
GRAVES, ARTHUR H. (1879-1962) 9(2): 8. 1963. Richard A. Jaynes.
HALSTED, BRYON DAVID (1852-1918) Am. J. Bot. 7: 305-317. 1920. F. L. Stevens, L. H. Pammel, and Mel T. Cook.
HEIM, ROGER (1900- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. Anonymous.
HILL, J. B. (1879-1961) 7(4): 6. 1961. H. W. Popp. HULTEN, ERIC (1894- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. Anonymous.
HUTCHINSON, .JOHN (1884-1972) 18(4): 43-44. 1972. - Anonymous.
JOHNSTON, IVAN M. (1898-1960) 6(4): 7. 1960. - Anonymous.
JOHNSTONE, GEORGE R. (1888-1971) 18(2): 19. 1972. - Anonymous.
JONES, GEORGE NEVILLE (1904-1970) 16(3): 10. 1970. Anonymous; 18(3): 23-24. 1972. Harold St. John.
JUST, THEODOR K. (1894-1960) 6(4): 7. 1960. - Anonymous. -
KEMP, MARGARET (1903-1963) 9(4): 9-10. 1963. Sara Bache-Wiig.
KRAUS, EZRA JACOB (1886-1960) 6(3): 7. 1960. - Anonymous.
KRAUSEL, RICHARD (1890-1966) 13(1): 8. 1967. David L. Dilcher.
MAHESHWARI, P. (1904-1966) 12(3): 10-11. 1966. N. S. Rangaswamy.
MARTIN, GEORGE WILLARD (1886-1971) 18(4): 44. 1972. Robert L. Hulbary.
METCALFE, CHARLES RUSSELL (1904- ) 14(4): 3.
MUENSCHER, WALTER C. (1891-1963) 9(3): 8. 1963. - Anonymous.
MUNZ, PHILIP A. (1892- ) 14(2): 1-2. 1968. Sherwin
NEMEC, BOHUMIL (1873-1966) 12(3): 9-10. 1966. R. L. Stevenson.
NEWCOMBE, FREDERICK CHARLES (1858-1927) Am. J. Bot. 15: 1-5. 1928..J. B. Pollock and H. H. Bartlett.
PAGE, ROBERT MEREDITH (1919-1968) 14(3): 6-7.
1968. John R. Raper and Winslow R. Briggs. PARKER, MARION WESLEY (1907-1966) 12(4): 8.
1966. S. B. Hendricks. PETRY, LOREN CLIFFORD (1887-1970) 16(3): 10-11. 1970. Harlan P. Banks.
POOL, RAYMOND J. (1882-1967) 13(1): 8. 1967. - Anonymous.
ROCK, JOSEPH F. (1884-1962) 9(2):'7-8. 1963. Egbert H. Walker.
RUBEL, EDUARD (1876-1960) 7(1): 6. 1961. Claude Weber.
SEYSENEGG, ERICH TSCHERMAK EDLER VON (1871-1962) 9(1): 8. 1963. Anonymous.
SHARP, LESTER W. (1887-1961) 8(1): 9. 1962. Harlan P. Banks.
SINNOTT, EDMUND WARE (1888-1968) 14(1): 6-7. 1968. Katherine S. Wilson.
STEENIS, C. G. G. J. VAN (1901- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. -
SUKACHEV, VLADIMIR NIKOLAYEVICH (1880-1967) 13(3): 6-7. 1967. V. J. Krajina.
SVEDELIUS, NILS E. (1873-1960) 6(4): 7. 1960. - Anonymous.
TAMIYA, HIROSHI (1903- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. -
THOMAS, HUGH HAMSHAW (1885-1962) 9(1): 8. 196:3. Anonymous.
THORNBER, JOHN J. (1872-1962) 9(1): 8. 1963. - Anonymous.
TIFFANY, LEWIS HANFORD (1894-1965) 11(2): 8. 1965. Faculty, Department of Biological Sciences, Northwestern University.
TOOLE, EBEN HENRY (1889-1967) 1:3(4): 7-8. 1967. H. A. Borthwick.
VERDOORN, FRANS (1906- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. -
WALTON, JOHN (1895-1971) 17(2): 19. 1971. Charles B. Beck.
WARDLAW, C. W. (1901- ) 1:3(3): 3. 1967. -
WEAVER, JOHN ERNST (1884-1966) 12(4): 7-8. 1966. G. W. Tomanek.
WHITE, ORLAND EMILE (1885-1972) 18(2): 19. 1972. J. N. Dent, Jacques J. Rappaport, and B. F. D. Runk.
WHITE, PHILIP R. (1901-1968) 14(2): 6-7. 1968. Denes de Torok.
Barnhart, John Hendley. 1965. Biographical Notes Upon Botanists. G. K. Hall and Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 3 vols. 563 pp., 549 pp., 545 pp.
[Fuller, Harry .J.]. 1955. Editorial platform. Plant Sci. Bull. 1(1): 2.
Stuckey, Ronald L. 1970. Index to biographical sketches and obituaries in publications of the Ohio Academy of Science, 1900-1970. Ohio J. Sc.). 70: 246-255.
Tippo, Oswald. 1956. The early history of the Botanical Society of Amierca. Am. J. Bot. 43: 852-858. Reprinted, pp. 1-13. In William Campbell Steere, ed. 1958. Fifty Years of Botany: Golden Jubilee Volume of the Botanical Society of America. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. New York. 6:38 pp.
Formation of a Structural Botany Section
At the 1973 meeting of the Botanical Society of America it was decided to establish a new section of the Society that would have as its central interest the analysis of plant structure at all organizational levels, from the cell up to the organ level. The purpose of this change was to provide a more realistic title and unifying interest for those who are now members of the General Section. At the next meeting of the Botanical Society we will hold an organizational meeting for the new Structural Botany Section during the period of time of the General Section Breakfast meeting. All who are interested in the organization of this new section are invited to attend that meeting on Tuesday, June 18, 1974 at 7:30 A.M. The exact place of the meeting will be announced at Tempe.
Donald R. Kaplan
General Section, B.S.A.
The Tempe Meeting
The 69th annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America will be held jointly with the Canadian and Mexican Societies. This international meeting will be held at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona from the 15th to the 20th of June, 1974. Among the several internationally sponsored symposia will be programs covering wide-ranging species, botanical teaching with Algae, floristics and ecology of Mexican vegetation and others. A number of field trips are planned in the botanically varied Southwest.
To maximise the interaction and exchange between the national societies, contributed paper sections also will be jointly sponsored. The AIRS symposium at the Tempe meetings, under the theme, "The Varied Environments of the Southwest," will examine some of the aspects of this diverse and biogeographically fascinating region. It is in-tended that this general symposium will provide a keynote for the other, more specialized, society symposia. All botanists should plan to attend.
Registration forms and room reservation applications will be made available in Bioscience.
Going to Leningrad?
To insure the availability of planes, the joint-Botanical Society of America, Inc. and the American Society of Plant Physiologists Charter Flights Committee has had to collect deposits and make arrangements with an airline by December, 1973. However, the Committee realizes that this may be a bit early for some members. Therefore, an effort will be made to arrange flights for .hose who wish to register at this late date. Members of he Botanical Society of America, American Society of 'lant Physiologists, Phytochemical Society of North tmerica, American Bryological and Lichenological society of America, American Phytopathological Society, ,merican Society of Plant Taxonomists, American Society rr the Horticultural Sciences, Ecological Society of merica, Mycological Society of America, Phycological aciety of America, Society for the Study of Evolution, Id the American Society of Microbiology. Dependents of embers are also eligible. One copy of the form (below) is
be completed for each traveler (make Xerox copies if cessary). Each form must be accompanied by a $75.00 deposit. Send the form(s) and check(s) to: BSA-ASPI Charter Flights Committee, c/o Dr. Joseph Arditti, Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92664. Checks should be made to XIlth International Botanical Congress Charters.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, Research Scientist, University Herbarium and Matthaei Botanical Gardens, and Assistant Professor of Botany. Applicant should be Ph.D. qualified to teach modern systematics (esp. chemosystematics or experimental biosystematics), also trained in classical taxonomy with knowledge of a variety of native and cultivated plants, and interested in working with the Herbarium and the Gardens in a program of modern systematics. Race, sex, age, religion, and ethnic origin or the applicant are immaterial. Address inquiries to Rogers McVaugh, Director, University Herbarium, North University Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, U.S.A.
THE DEPARTMENT O1'' BIOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO is soliciting applications for two new faculty positions for fall, 1974; one in Molecular Genetics and the other in Developmental Biology.
Initial appointments will be made at the assistant professor level. Appointees will be expected to develop undergraduate courses in the areas specified as well as in an area of their own interest. Applicants must have a strong interest in both teaching and research, and will be expected to participate in the supervision of graduate students and to initiate a research program in their particular area of specialization.
Interested persons should submit a curriculum vitae including academic training to: Dr. Clifford S. Crawford, Acting Chairman, Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131.
HARVARD UNIVERSITY is seeking a person to fill a position in the herbarium that would involve some teaching and administration (half time) and research (half time). Applicants should have a solid background in vascular plant systematics and a real interest in the her-barium. The appointment will be jointly in the Arnold Arboretum and the Gray Herbarium as either Assistant or Associate Professor of Biology, and the appointee will be a member of the Department of Biology and an Assistant or Associate Curator of the Arnold and the Gray. Interested systematists should write to Dr. Carroll E. Wood, Jr., Professor of Biology, Chairman of Search Committee, The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Mass. 02138.
INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED ASSISTANT PROFESSOR level for September 1974. Ph.D. Demonstrated research performance and teaching performance. Background in biophysics or biochemistry, preferably in membrane research. Full job description available on request. Applicants should send vitae, 3 letters of recommendation, and transcripts by April 15, 1974, to: Chair-man, Department of Botany, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163. An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. Minority and/or women candidates are encouraged to identify themselves.
APPROXIMATELY 150 COPIES OF the published contributions of the 1972 Botanical Society Symposium en-titled "The Monocotyledons: their evolution and comparative biology" which was published in the June and September 1973 issues of volume 48 of the Quarterly Review of Biology, are available for distribution. Eight papers in all were published and they have been bound together as a unit. I will be glad to send copies free upon request as long as the supply lasts. Please address all requests to: Dr. Donald R. Kaplan, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.
The authors and topics of the papers are as follows:
THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF PLANT TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE July 21-26, 1974, Leicester, England . . . It is expected that the National Science Foundation will award a bloc travel grant to sup-port the travel of selected American scientists to the Leicester Congress. Further information can be obtained from Professor Indra K. Vasil, Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.
THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA announces eight graduate courses in biology to be offered at the Mountain Lake Biological Station this summer. They are as follows:
First Term: June 12-July 16
Principles of Ecology, Dr. William E. Odum, University of Virginia
Biology of Mosses, Dr. David A. Breil, Longwood College
Herpetology, Dr. Harry G. M. Jopson, Bridgewater College
Invertebrate Zoology, Dr. Fred A. Diehl, University of Virginia
Second Term: July 17-August 20
Aquatic Ecology, Dr. George M. Simmons, Jr., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Ecological Genetics, Dr. David A. West,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Taxonomy of Seed Plants, Dr. Warren H. Wagner, Jr., University of Michigan
Mammalogy, Dr. Charles O. Handley, Jr., United States National Museum
Fellowships of $150 for one student in each term have been made available by the North Carolina Botanical Garden. This fellowship may not be held concurrently with any other stipend from the Station. The recipients of these awards are chosen by the Research and Awards Committee of the Department of Biology. Application for awards should be sent to the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, University of Virginia, Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903.
Dr. Gregory J. Anderson has accepted a position in the Systematics and Evolutionary Biology Section of the University of Connecticut.
Dr. Lorraine B. Spencer is now at the Department of Biology of Guilford College, Greensboro, North Carolina.
Dr. Frank Willingham, Jr. is now the taxonomist in the Horticulture Department of Callaway Gardens, Pine Mountain, Georgia.
Dr. James M. Scho h, Professor of Geology at the Ohio State University, haseen given the Gilbert H. Cady Award of the Geological Society of America in recognition of his many contributions in several fields of geology. Dr. Schopf is a member of the Botanical Society of America as well as various other botanical societies.
A. J. Sharp and Frank D. Bowers of the Department of Botany, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37916, are doing a comprehensive study of the mosses of Mexico. They would like the opportunity of naming undetermined Mexican material and learning of obscure collections from Mexico.
The officers for the Phycological Section of the Botanical Society of America are: Chairman, Dr. J. Robert Waaland, Department of Botany, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; the new Representative of the Section on the Editorial Board of the American Journal of Botany is Dr. Karl Mattox, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Dr. Paul Biebel, Dickinson College, is Secretary of the Section.
Minutes of the Business Meeting
University of Masschusetts,
President: Theodore Delevoryas, University of Texas Vice-President: Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botancial Garden Member of the Editorial Hoard, American Journal of Botany:
Charles B. Beck, University of Michigan
The Secretary, Treasurer, and Program Chairman continue in office for 1974.
President Cronquist reported that the Council had considered the recommendation, made independently by two individuals, that the office of Vice-President be changed to President-Elect, and voted against the change.
At the end of the section add: Retired members shall be exempt from payment of annual dues. They shall have all of the privileges of active membership, except that those who wish to continue receiving the publications of the Society may do so by payment of one-half the amount of the annual dues set for active members.
Approval of the changes was moved and seconded. Dr. Sydney Greenfield moved an amendment to the proposed version of Article 11, Section 1(e) to the effect that retired members will receive the Plant Science Bulletin and Yearbook without payment of dues. The amendment was seconded and passed with no dissenting votes. The actual wording of the change was left to the Secretary, and the Article now reads: "Retired members shall be exempt from payment of annual dues. They shall have all the privileges of active membership, including receipt of the Plant Science Bulletin and Yearbook, except that those who wish to continue receiving the other publications of the Society may do so by payment of one-half the amount of the annual dues for active members." Following approval of the amendment, all changes were approved.
Three financial reports were distributed: the final report for 1972, which will be published in Plant Science Bulletin, a report through May :31, 1973, and a projected report for the remainder of 1973. Because of the need to transfer funds to the Journal, the Society has been operating in the red, and has had to draw on reserve funds. Dr. Bell said that the proposed budget for 1974 was about $45,000 and did not include an allocation to the Journal as large as requested, because it was hoped to obtain part of these funds by other means.
Dr. Bell also reported that the Council had voted to establish an endowment fund. The interest from this fund is to be used to subsidize publication of papers by students in the American Journal of Botany.
It was moved and seconded that the treasurer's report be approved; motion passed.
Active $15.00 Life $500.00
Family 17.50 Sustaining 350.00
Student (unchanged) 6.00 Retiring subscribing 7.50
Dr. Eyde moved and Dr. Wallace seconded the motion that the new clues recommended by the Council be approved. Motion passed with no dissents.
Dr. Cronquist commented on another Council action, one relative to the publication of the 1972 symposium on 25 years in botany. A committee composed of Drs. Wagner, Chairman, Boke, Heimsch, and Bold are to explore the possibility of an alternate means of publication. If they find or want no other means, instead of a separate entire issue of American Journal of Botany ($15,000!), the papers will be published one at a time as the lead paper of each issue until all are published. There will be an allowance of 16 pages; beyond that the author will be assessed page charges.
Dr. Cronquist reported that a committee, with Dr. Joseph Arditti as Chairman, has been exploring the possibility of charter flights to Leningrad. Questionnaires will be submitted to the membership this fall and requests for deposits will be sent out in early winter to those who have expressed an interest in the flights. Sur-plus funds, approximately $40,000, from Lhe XI Congress will be used to pay travel grants (Albert E. Dimond Memorial grants), to be awarded on the basis of merit and promise, by a separate committee of the Society. The limit set on any grant is the price of a seat on a charter flight from the location of the awardee. It was pointed out by several people that there are federal monies available for travel to international meetings and it was recommended that these additional sources of funds be explored. This will be done.
The question was raised about getting funds from the Department of Agriculture for research. Several people commented on the fact there now are ways in which this can be accomplished. This possible source of funds needs to be explored further.
There being no other new business, the meeting adjourned at 2:32 P.M.
Respectfully submitted, Barbara F. Palser, Secretary
The American Journal of Botany Report of the Business Manager Year Ended December 31, 1972
The American Journal of Botany
BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, INC.
PRESIDENT: 'Theodore Delevoryas Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
VICE-PRESIDENT: *Peter H. Raven
Missouri Botanical Garden 2315 Tower Grove Avenue St. Louis, Missouri 63110
SECRETARY: *Barbara F. Palser (1970-1974)
Department of Botany Rutgers University
New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903
TREASURER: *C. Ritchie Bell (1973-1977) Botany Department
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill,
North Carolina 27514
ACTING PROGRAM *David A. Stetler
DIRECTOR: Department of Botany Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State U.
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061
EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: David W. Bierhorst (1972-1974)
Department of Botany University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
John G. Torrey (1973-1975) Harvard Forest
Harvard University Petersham, Massachusetts 01366
Charles B. Beck (1974-1976) Department of Botany University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
EDITOR, *Norman H. Boke (1970-1974)
AMERICAN JOURNAL Department of Botany &
OF BOTANY: Microbiology
770 Van Vleet Oval University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma 73069
EDITOR, *Robert. W. Long (1971-1975)
PLANT SCIENCE Department of Biology
BULLETIN: University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
BUSINESS MANAGER, *Richard A. Popham
AMERICAN JOURNAL Department of Botany
OF BOTANY: Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
SECTIONAL OFFICERS AND COUNCIL MEMBERS FOR 1974
PAST PRESIDENT, 1973: *Arthur Cronquist
New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
PAST PRESIDENT, 1972: *Charles Heimsch Department of Botany Miami University
Oxford, Ohio 45056
PAST PRESIDENT, 1971: *Richard A. Starr
Department of Botany Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47401
Chairman (1973-1975): *Richard M. Klein Department, of Botany University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont 05401
Vice-Chairman (1973-1975): Donald E. Fosket
Dept. of Developmental & Cell Biology
University of California Irvine, California 92664
Secretary (1973-1975): Jane Taylor
Biology Department University of Michigan Flint, Michigan 48503
Representative to AJB Knut. J. Norstog
Editorial Board: Department of Biological Sciences
Northern Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois 60115
Chairman (1974): Natalie W. Uhl Bailey Hortorium
467 Mann Library
Ithaca, New York 14850
Vice-Chairman (1974): Ray F. Evert
Department of Botany University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706
Secretary-Treasurer (1974): *Donald R. Kaplan Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720
Representative to AJB William F. Millington
Editorial Board (1972-1974): Department of Biology Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin 5323:3
Chairman (1972-1974 ): Jerry W. Stannard Department. of History University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66044
Vice-Chairman (1972-1974): Harriet B. Creighton Department of Biology Wellesley College
Wellesley, Massachusetts 02181
Secretary (1971-1974): 'Ronald L. Stuckey Department, of Botany 1735 Neil Avenue
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
Representative to AJB Emanuel D. Rudolph
Editorial Board (1973-1975): Department. of Botany 1735 Neil Avenue
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
Chairman (1974): James S. Lovett Department of Biological Sciences
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
Vice-Chairman (1974): Donald J. Niederpruem Illeparttnent of Microbiology Indiana University
Medical Center Indianapolis, Indiana 46202
Secretary (1972-1974): Charles E. Bracker Dept. of Botany and
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
Representative to the Council *Ian K. Ross
(1973-1975): Department of Biological Sciences
University of California Santa Barbara, California 9:3106
Representative to AJB Peter R. Day
Editorial Board (1973-1975): Department of Genetics Connecticut Agricultural
New Haven, Connecticut 06504
Chairman (1974): David L. Dilcher
Department of Botany Bloomington, Indiana 47401
Secretary-Treasurer Thomas N. Taylor
(1972-1974): Department of Botany Ohio University Athens, Ohio 45701
Represent.ative to AJB Charles N. Miller
Editorial Board (1973-1975): Department of Botany University of Montana Missoula, Montana 59801
Chairman (1974): J. Robert Waaland Department of Botany University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98105
Secretary (1972-1974): Paul J. Biebel Department of Biology Dickinson College
Carlisle, Pennsylvania 17103
Representative to AJB Karl Mattox
Editorial Board 0974): Department of Botany Miami University Oxford, Ohio 45056
Chairperson `Jerry. W. McClure
(1973-1975): Botany Department Miami University Oxford, Ohio 45056
Vice-Chairperson Anitra Thorhaug
(1973-1975): School of Medicine University of Miami Miami, Florida 33149
Representative to AJB Arthur W. Galston
Editorial Board (indefinitely): Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut (1652(1
Chairman (1974): "Jean H. Langenheim Division of
Santa Cruz, Califon is 950(i0
Vice-Chairman (1974): Robert P. Adams Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology Colorado State University
Ft. Collins, Colorado 80521
Secretary (1973-1974): David E. Giannasi
New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
Representative to AJB Tod F. Stuessy
Editorial Board (1971-1974): Academic Faculty of Botany Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
Chairman (1974-1975): Richard A. White Department of Botany Duke University
Durham, North Carolina 27706
Secretary-Treasurer 'Edward J. Klekowski
(1972-1974): Department of Botany University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
Representative to AJB Warren H. Wagner, Jr.
Editorial Board (1974-1975): Department of Botany University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
Chairman (1974-1976): `John R. Reeder Department of Botany University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming 82070
Secretary (1972-1974): Duncan M. Porter Department of Botany Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. 20560
Representative to AJB Patricia K. Holmgren
Editorial Board (197:3-1975): New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
Chairman (1974): Donald Dean
Department of Botany Baldwin-Wallace College Berea, Ohio 44017
Vice-Chairman (1974): Willis H. Hertig, Jr. Department of Biology
West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26505
Secretary (1971-1974): *Elwood B. Ehrle
School of Arts and
Mankato State College Mankato, Minnesota 56001
Representative to AJB Robert W. Hoshaw
Editorial Board (1969-1974): Botanical Laboratories Agricultural Sciences Building
University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721
Chairman (1974): Andrew Greller
900-10 Baychester Avenue Bronx, New York 10475
Secretary-Treasurer 'Mathilde P. Weingartner
(1973-1975): Staten Island Museum 75 Stuyvesant Place
Staten Island, New York 10301
Chairman (1974): Irving B. McNulty Department of Biology University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
Vice-Chairman (1974): Fred H. Rickson Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology
Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Secretary-Treasurer 'Edward F. Anderson
(1974-1976): Department of Biology Whitman College
Walla Walla, Washington 99362
AAAS Council Leo E. Jones
Representative Botany Department Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331
Chairman (1974-1976): Albert. E. Radford Department of Botany University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514
Secretary-Treasurer *Dana Griffin III
(1971-1974): Department of Botany University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32601
Chairman of Activities Gwynn Ramsey
Committee (1974-1976): Biology Department Lynchburg College Lynchburg, Virginia 24504
BOTANICAL SOCITY OF AMERICA, INC.
The individuals listed as chairmen serve in that office for 1974. In parentheses following each name is the date of expiration of that individual's appointment to the committee.
Committee on Corresponding Members
Arthur Cronquist (1976), New York Botanical
Charles Heimsch (1975) Bronx, New York 10458 Richard C. Starr (1974)
Merit Awards Committee
George F. Papenfuss (1974), Department of Botany
Chariman University of California
W. Gordon Whaley (1976) Berkeley, California
Murray F. Buell (1976) 94720
Henry N, Andrews, Jr. (1975)
Arthur Galston (1975)
Darbaker Prize Committee
Norma J. Lang (1974), Department of Botany
Chairman University of California
Michael Neushul (1975) Davis, California 95616 Michael Wynne (1976)
New York Botanical Garden Garden Award Committee
John W. Hall (1974) Department of Botany
Chairman University of Minnesota
Ian M. Sussex (1974) St. Paul, Minnesota 55101 Richard Norris (1974)
Charles B. Heiser, Jr. (1974)
Jeanette Sit-on Pelton Award Committee
James A. Lockhart (1974), Department of Botany
Chairman University of Massachusetts
Claude L. Brown (1974) Amherst, Massachusetts
Taylor A. Steeves (1975) 01002 Dominick Basile (1975)
Lawrence J. Crockett (1974), Department of Botany
Chairman City College
Patricia L. Walne (1975) Convent Avenue & 139th Street
Knut..J. Norstog (1976) New York City, New York
James A. Quinn (1977) 10031 Ex officio: Secretary
J. Donald LaCroix (1974), University of Detroit
Chairman College of Arts
Paul C. MacMillan (1974) Sciences
Fred R. Rickson (1975) 4001 W. McNichols Road
Willard W. Payne (1975) Detroit, Michigan 48221 S. S. Tepfer (1976)
R. F. Scagel (1976)
Ex officio: President, Secretary, Secretary of Teaching Section, Editor of Plant Science Bulletin, Representative of AAAS Cooperative Committee on the Teaching of Science and Mathematics, Past Chairman of Committee.
Edward E. C. Clebsch (1974), Graduate Program in Ecology
Chairman University of Tennessee
Carl D. Monk (1974) 408 10th Street
Roger E. Wilson (1974) Knoxville, Tennessee
Harold A. Mooney (1975) 37916
Wilhelm G. Solheim (1975)
Lloyd C. Hulbert (1975)
Committee on Research Funding
William A. .Jensen, Department of Botany
Chairman University of California
Loran C. Anderson Berkeley, California
Melvin S. Fuller 94720
Ian M. Sussex
Francis R. Trainor
Albert E. Dimond Memorial Award
William P. Jacobs Biological Laboratory
Chairman Princeton University
Joseph Arditti Princeton, New Jersey
James Gerdeman 08540
Charter Flight Committee
Joseph Arditti Dept. of Developmental
Chairman & Cell Biol.
Roger E. Wilson University of California
Anitra Thorhaug Lrvine, California 92664 Graeme P. Berlyn
Tom J. Mabry
A. Orville Dahl (1974)
AIBS Governing Board Roy L. Taylor (1974)
AAAS Cooperative Committee on the Teaching of Science and Mathematics Donald Dean (1976)
Division of Biology and Agriculture, National Research Council William L. Stern (1975)
AIBS Meetings in Tempe, Arizona,
June 16-21, 1974
Duncan T. Patten - Local Representative David A. Stetler - Acting Program Chairman
Botanical Society of America, Inc.
*$15,330.00 allocated American Journal of Botany for 1972 was not paid until February 1973.
C. Ritchie Bell
Citations for Awards Presented at the Annual Banquet, 1973
Darbaker Prize for 1973
To John West of the University of California at Berkeley. "for his application of modern culture techniques which have brought about the laboratory induction and development of important reproductive stages in a variety of marine algae. His manipulation of temperature, light, and nutrients and his knowledge of field observations by previous investigators have enables the regulation of en-tire life cycles of marine algae in the laboratory. Furthermore, his use of a variety of study techniques in combination, such as light and electron microscopy, have contributed to a greater understanding of algal life cycles and development.
New York Botanical Garden Award for 1973
To Daniel Branton, recently of the University of California at Berkeley and now at Harvard University. "for his brilliant and ingenious application of the freeze fracture and freeze etch techniques to the study of cell membranes. His contributions in this area are reported in a number of papers dating back to 1964. If a single paper is to be cited, the following article is appropriate. Branton, D. 1971. Freeze-etching studies of membrane structure. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 261:133-1:38."
Paleobotanical Award for 1973
The award was presented to Mr. Karl Niklas, Department of Botany, University of Illinois, Urbana, for his presentation titled "Protosalvinia from North and South America."
The Seventh Annual Jesse M. Greenman Award
The seventh Jesse M. Greenman Award will be presented at the 1974 annual banquet of the Botanical Society of America at Tempe, Arizona. This Award of $200 is presented each year by the Alumni Association of the Missouri Botanical Garden in recognition of the best paper in plant systematics based on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. Papers published during 1973 are now being considered. Reprints of such papers should be sent to Alwyn H. Gentry, Secretary, Alumni Association, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2315 Tower Grove Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 6:3110, before May 1, 1974.
William R. Anderson, New York Botanical Garden, is the recipient of the 1973 Award. The winning publication is his "A Monograph of the Genus Crusea (Rubiaceae)." Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 22 (4): 1-128. 1972.
Citations for 1973 Botanical Society of America Merit Awards
To Charles Stacy French of the Carnegie Institution of Washington at Stanford. "skillful and persistent investigator of the spectral properties and state of chlorophyll in tissues; inventor and gadgeteer par excellence; able and genial administrator of a productive center of botanical research."
To Mildred Esther Mathias of the University of California at Los Angeles. "scholarly systematist and distinguished student of the Umbelliferae; enthusiastic and able teacher; her effective encouragement of tropical botanical education and her leadership in the development of American botanical gardens suggest the breadth of her influence."
To Richard Cawthon Starr of Indiana University. "distinguished student of soil algae, sexuality of desmids, and reproduction and differentiation of Volvox; his great service to biology in founding and maintaining the culture collection of algae at Indiana University is widely appreciated."
ELLENBERG, H. (ed) Ecological Studies 2. Integrated Experimental Ecology. Springer - Verlag. New York. 1970. 214 pp.
This volume, edited by professor Ellenberg (University of Gottingen, Germany), and comprised of research studies under his direction, represents work on one of the pilot projects of the International Biological Program, in the Soiling Research Area, West Germany. At this IBP site, scientists representing a variety of disciplines - meteorology, soil science, hydrology, botany, zoology, microbiology, agriculture and forestry - got together to ascertain the practical possibilities of the analysis of ecosystems. The research, began in 1966, is still going on. This volume is a report on the methods and the experiences by most members of the research team on 46 of the research projects. Preliminary results are presented.
Volume 1 in the series, Ecological Studies (Analysis of Temperate Forest Ecosystems, D. Reichle, Ed.) summarized the existing data on some main topics in global forest ecosystems. Volume 3 (to be prepared) will be a final synthesis of the results from the Soiling site.
Next to that of Belgium, West Germany's Soiling Project was the first comprehensive pilot project to be initiated under the auspices of the IBP. Dr. Ellenberg notes that since the largest gaps in our knowledge exist in the sector of the terrestrial biological communities, the West German National Committee for the IBP decided to
concentrate all its personnel and funds in this area. With a team of 50 research workers, it has been possible to make a contribution which this preliminary volume represents.
The Soiling Plateau was chosen as the study area primarily because it represents one of Germany's largest deciduous forest areas, dominated by acidophilous beech forest (the most abundant naturally occurring plant community in West Germany). The natural deciduous forests are being replaced at an increasing rate by artificially cultivated spruce (Picea abies), which is favored by foresters because it is faster-growing than the naturally dominating deciduous trees. This replacement process by Picea abies was included in the intergrated research plan at Soiling.
In order to acquire data of a more widely applicable nature, in addition to those valued for the individual ecosystem in question, the workers chose four adjoining plant formations which, under identical conditions of soil and general climate, form several ecosystems which are significant for the East German landscape: a) deciduous beech forest; b) evergreen spruce forest; c) grassland under different fertilizer treatments; d) cultivated field with annual plants whose treatment and fertilizer dosages varied.
The papers by 33 authors, of various disciplines from 20 different institutes, are divided into five sections; 1) introductory survey; 2) primary production; 3) secondary production; 4) environmental conditions and 5) range of validity of the results. In addition, 13 other research projects are listed as currently under way, but are not yet available for publication. Many of the papers are short articles in which the methods are outlined, with some results presented and some discussion. The literature cited in the papers is primarily European.
Many currently important research topics are covered in this volume including problems of root productivity, phenology, biochemical composition, caloric determinations, soil microbial studies, and soil chemistry. What is not apparent in this study is if the multifaceted Soiling Research Project is being tied together with the tools of Systems Analysis. It is hoped that this potential aspect of the study will appear in Volume 3.
One factor which aided the cooperative study was the fact that all biological communities in the Solling Area are relatively poor in plant and animal species. In the woodland, as in the grassland, very few plants and animals are dominant. Their quantitative significance in the ecosystem could then be precisely determined.
First priority in IBP was assigned to intergrated projects for the study of ecosystems. That is the stated goal of the Soiling IBP Report, but the present collection of papers makes no attempt at synthesis or integration. It is hoped this will be done in another publication, such as the forthcoming Volume 3.
This volume contains a wealth of information on instrumentation and methodology which would be of value for ecologists, foresters, entomologists, soils scientists, and other scientists. One would conclude that the Solling Project, from its outset to its conclusion, has been a fine, comprehensive effort by the German workers. We are extremely fortunate to have the Solling Studies included in one volume so that persons involved with and interested in the IBP can examine the analysis of one of the sites by members of the site team.
Donald W. Davidson University of Wisconsin-Superior
GOODWIN, T. W. and E. I. MERCER, Introduction to Plant Biochemistry. Pergamon Press, New York. 1972. VII + 359 pp.
This volume deals with fundamental biochemical processes which are characteristic of many organisms but strongly emphasizes information obtained from plant systems. Thus more than one-third of the text is devoted to bio-energetics, enzyme kinetics, respiration and basic metabolism. Additional chapters provide excellent introductions to the biochemistry of the plant cell wall and photosyntesis. The chapter on photosynthesis contains such useful material as a discussion of various reagents which are frequently used in experimental studies and a consideration of primary photochemistry. Related topics including a good discussion of redox potentials and a summary of porphyrin biosynthesis are covered in other chapters. In keeping with the primary orientation towards more general topics, terpenes and terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids and related compounds are briefly surveyed. These chapters do, however, contain numerous structural formulae illustrating the diversity of compounds which can be synthesized by plants.
Unique features of the format adopted for this text are the inclusion of systematic nomenclature for specific enzymes at the end of each chapter and the use of a number of fold-out pages which provide clear illustrations of chemical structures and metabolic pathways. Each of 15 chapters is outlined and appropriately subdivided into specific topics.
The author's attempts to maintain a moderate size volume have resulted in several less desirable features. Only limited material on proteins and protein synthesis is included and from a personal point of view, metabolic regulation is insuffiently covered. Most of the text material is presented at a level which assumes that the reader has completed a comprehensive course in biochemistry. In the section on enzyme kinetics, for example, the listed used of Km could be misleading in absence of knowledge gained elsewhere. Similarly, the reader is alerted to the potential lack of accuracy of Linewaver-Burk plots but alternative transformations are not mentioned. In contrast, a somewhat elementary consideration of plant cell structure and function is provided in Chapter 3 to aid biochemists less familiar with plants. Nevertheless, the occasional use of terms such as "Photosynthetic unit" without definition could be confusing and reference to the cell wall as a "tough membrane" is inappropriate.
Given that this volume is not intended as an introductory biochemistry text, its most severe limitation is the complete omission of original literature citations. Although a few specialized texts and general review articles are cited at the end of each chapter, readers should anticipate some minor frustration engendered by being unable to easily clarify such apparently conflicting statements as: "In plant mitochondria ... little or no cytochrome c ' i s present ... ' (p. 119) and ` ... a cytochrome of the C' type has recently been demonstrated ... in the mitochondria of higher plants ..." (p. 125). Furthermore, experimental results which tend to support specific concepts are mentioned with reasonable frequency. This is highly desirable but such results should be
accessible to the reader for critical examination. Apparent references such as Lucy (1964) proposed ... "are sometimes included in the text but not cited in the bibliography.
J. K. Bryan Syracuse University
HEISER, CHARLES B., JR. Seed to Civilization: the Story of Man's Food. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. 1973. xii + 243 pp. $7.50 (cloth), $3.50 (paper).
The first portion of this fascinating and informal hook deals with the origins of agriculture, which the author would date from about 7000 B.C. He gives cogent reasons for concluding that the earliest plant domestications took place in the Near East, although other important areas, such as southeastern Asia and Mexico, became significant only slightly later. It is suggested that agriculture evolved independently in different parts of the world, arising from the cultivation of locally indigenous wild species of plants.
The inter-relationships of religion, sex, and animal and plane reviewed in A most comprehensive and entertaining way. The reasons underlying the origins of domestication, on reflection, are by no means self-evident, and explanations are here sought through a logical and often startling approach.
Food taboos are still very much with us. "Much non-sense has been written about food and, in fact, continues to be written. That much of this nonsense is believed is indicated by the fact that the people of the United States have spent an estimated 500 million dollars a year on food nostrums.
Heiser underlines the importance to man of the domestication of animals, believing that plant and animal domestication began at approximately the same time. About 50 species of animals have been truly domesticated, of which only a dozen are of paramount importance and wide distribution. Man's oldest domesticate is perhaps the dog, the short discussion of which dog-lovers are advised to skip. Other domesticated animals and their uses are covered in satisfactory detail, with appropriate emphasis on the ruminants.
The greater part of "Seed to Civilization" details the domestication, cultivation, and uses of plants. Only about 200 species of plants "stand between man and starvation," and not more than a dozen are of major importance. Man's dependence upon the grass family - especially upon wheat, rice, maize, and sugar cane - is underlined in detail. The intensive research of recent decades on the development of these four grasses is summarized in scholarly and very readable form.
The legumes, "the poor man's meat," are the subject of a chapter. They were among man's first domesticates and are complementary to cereals in making possible the rapid advance of civilization. The starchy staples, in particular the potato, the sweet potato, yams, manioc, bananas, avoids, and breadfruit, are more important than cereals as a mainstay of the diet of many tropical peoples. The coconut, "man's more useful tree," is also of major importance. Heiser's discussions of theories bearing on the origins and migrations of the sweet potato and the coconut are concise and informative.
Other plants used for food, beverages, and spices are not neglected, but the reader must explore Heiser's treatment of them for himself. The present book, of course, is
not intended to be the comprehensive treatise that we have in John W. Purseglove's recent four-volume work on "Tropical Crops" (John Wiley & Sons, 1968, 1972), but it serves to supplement that treatment in a most interesting fashion.
A final chapter, "Let them eat cake?", is provocative and, in the author's own evaluation, unhappy. He finds little reason for optimistically assuming that the "green revolution" will eliminate hunger from the world. This last chapter is a sober and thoughtful discussion of human population problems. As a highly regarded student of cultivated plants, Heiser is in a better position than most scientists to appreciate their limitations, and his words carry weight.
The comparatively slim volume here reviewed is an outstanding achievement in its combination of scientific discussion and concise evaluation. Photographs, drawings, and maps excellently supplement the text, which should appeal to the general reader as well as to biologists, agriculturists, and archeologists. The author deserves our thanks for his scholarly and good humored treatment of a topic of timely significance.
Albert C. Smith University of Massachusetts, Amherst
YOSHIWO HORIKAWA. Atlas of the Japanese Flora: An Introduction to Plant Sociology of East Asia. 12 pages + 500 maps + I-VIII (Indices). Prefaces by R. Tuxen and by W. C. Steere. Gakken Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 1972. Price: 25,000 yen (cloth, boxed).
The culmination of the author's lifetime of phytogeographic study is this beautiful oversize tome containing 500 maps for as many plant species indigenous to Japan. The first 25 are those for Gymnosperms; the next 375 for Dicots; then 40 for Monocots, followed by 30 for Pteridophytes; and finally 30, for Bryophytes. While most of the species are endemic to Japan or eastern Asia, many of the genera are also common to North America.
Each page as designed and exploited by the author contains 3 diagrams: the usual distribution map using dots and two other showing altitudinal distributions. One of these gives elevations at which the species is found as one moves from west to east from 120° to 146°; the other, from south to north between 24° and 46°. Accompanying each set of diagrams are the scientific name and major synonyms of the taxon represented as well as the Japanese name in Japanese "Katakana" and in Roman letters. Included on the page are indications of the general habitat and life form (modified from Braun-Blanquet and Ellen-berg); and the months of flowering and maturing of fruits or spores in the median part of the range are listed. Also given are the general areas of occurrence outside Japan, and many miscellaneous short notes of general interest.
It will be extremely useful not only to phytogeographers, but to plant sociologists and ecologists who wish to make comparisons of habitats, life forms, etc., between vicariads of Japan and North America. The techniques used in illustrating distributions could serve as models for future publications.
A. J. Sharp University of Tennessee
WAISEL, YOAV, Biology of Halophytes, Academic Press, 1972, 395 pages. $18.50.
Biologists appreciate the necessity and advantages of multi-disciplinary approaches and none with more reason than ecologists. They perforce consider the influence of many variables (soil, air, light, temperature, etc.) that most other biologists simply control, while studying the effects of a single variable. In making this treatise multidisciplinary (ecological, physiological, anatomical, morphological), Waisel was accepting the inevitable but with a notable personal advantage. His own ecological and physiological researches at Tel Aviv University, many of which are cited and discussed in this volume, have given him a degree of multidisciplinary expertise that not many authors can equal.
Of the sixteen chapters in this book, three deal with the origin, dynamics and distribution of salines in the environment. The rest are about equally divided between physiology (water relations, ion transport, metabolism, etc.) and the specific ecology and characteristics of halophytes.
Too frequently these days exaggerated prophecies of doom are used to introduce ecological treatises. Waisel suggests that the increasing salination of the environment indicates that "the future of plants lies with some group of halophytes" and understanding their physiology may, therefore, provide the key to survival. Many would dispute so extreme a judgment, even for the arid zone where the threat of salination is most acute.
Although the general treatment of topics in this book is informative and useful, some inconsistencies were noted. Waisel recognizes that low concentrations of Ca and Mg are important in antagonizing the preponderant concentrations of Na often found in nature and that single-salt Na treatments are, therefore, more toxic than mixed-salt solutions. But this effect is not taken into ac-count in describing observations with single-salt Na solutions. Attention is constantly drawn to NaCl by defining tolerance in terms of NaCl concentrations (a customary procedure in ecological writing) and by frequent references to toxicity of Na and Cl. Even for most glycophytes, Na and Cl are no more toxic than isismotic concentrations of other ions and for halophytes, Waisel notes that many tolerate Ca much less than they do Na. Most halophytes respond favorably to moderate NaCl concentrations of ca. 0.05 M and show only the progressive decline in growth at higher NaCl concentrations characteristic of osmotic effects. There seems little reason for invoking specific Na and Cl toxicity. Of course, excesses of even favorable factors eventually become damaging. The importance of regulating intracellular salt concentration is discussed both with regard to alternative mechanisms found in various halophytes (avoidance, exclusion, dilution and secretion of salt and abscission of leaves), and with respect to. the possibility that intracellular cornpartmentation in halophytes may separate salts from salt-sensitive metabolic processes. Unfortunately, higher plants do not appear to possess enzymes like those of obligate halophytic bacteria which require high salt concentrations for optimum activity, just as the cells require salinity for growth.
Thre treatise does a credible job of describing the morphological, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of both coastal and inland desert halophytes and of relating these properties to the ecological niches they occupy. Of particular interest is the concluding chapter on ecotypic differentiation which describes the structural and functional adaptations of different ecotypes of given species. Further study of these halophytic ecotypes and of closely related glycophytes may resolve the riddle of halophytism which may well turn out to have as many answers as the diversity of adaptations of halophytes to their saline environment.
The author suggests his treatise may be useful as a text on salinity. It undoubtedly will be a useful reference book, but tends to be too uncritically encyclopedic and discursive and, in places, self-contradictory, to serve well as a text. For example, at one point SO' is said to induce xeromorphism and Cl, succulence, but elsewhere Na is cited as the primary cause of succulence. On one page, C4 plants appear to function best under high water stress but on the next it is C3 plants that do so. In fact, extremes in salt tolerance and sensitivity are found among both C` and C' plants.
Plant water relations experts will be annoyed by the author's disregard of the negative sign for osmotic potentials while using, in most cases, the negative total water potential values and this after an introduction that stresses the negative values of osmotic, matric, and total water potentials. These are, to be sure, minor annoyances, but they, like the occasional lapses of syntax, could have been corrected by more rigorous editing.
Illustrations, tables and figures are liberally and, for the most part, effectively used. Some could have been improved by more informative legends. Indices to cited authors, plant species and subjects are thorough, although single headings often include too many unspecified references to he readily usable.
This is a book well worth reading but the reader, like the book's author, will still have to make up his own mind about many of the problems that are poorly resolved.
RIOPEL, JAMES L., Experiments in Developmental Botany, 134 p. Wm. C. Brown Company, Publisher, Dubuque, Iowa. 1973.
The author states that his purpose is to provide "a real stimulus for learning" development in plants. He uses (a) questions concerning morphogenetic problems; (b) published research papers; (c) current experimental techniques; and (d) living, developing plant materials whenever possible. His approach should enable a student to not only "talk about," but to constructively recognize and work toward the solution of some of the unresolved problems in developmental botany today.
The information in this spiral-bound workbook, plus the references given, will help a teacher who has not had special trainings in these methods. The formulae and methods for the preparation of standard media are given. Basic techniques and some methods in tissue culture are described. Living source plants are listed. The short appendix is valuable; it gives additional information regarding media, reagents, and the growing of plant materials; the list of commercial sources is helpful. The reviewer has not had an opportunity, as yet, to use this book in the classroom. There is where its true "teachability" will be tested.
The sequence of topics is logical. The use of research papers is excellent. Many questions are raised. A constructive experimental approach to some major questions is given. Then the author wisely stops. He permits each student to have the pleasure of finding which answers can
be obtained. The student does not know these answers prior to setting up his own experiments and making his own observations.
Most of the experimental plants suggested are Angiosperms. The author does include some work using Vascular Cryptogams; ferns do provide excellent experimental materials. It's unfortunate that one short section telling how to grow Bryophytes and Fresh-water Algae could not have been included. These also have much to offer in studies of plant morphogenesis.
I am pleased that this book has been written. I believe it will be a great aid to many teachers and students. I intend to use it, in part at least, in my own classes.
Leo E. Jones Boise State College
GAUCH, HUGH G. Inorganic Plant Nutrition. John Wiley. N.Y. 1972 $21.50.
Professor Gauch's book is an elaborate and advanced text that deals not only with the basics of mineral nutrition in plants but with several aspects of applied agronomic science as well. One or more of the eighteen chapters making up this reference deals with such diverse and basic topics as water and soil-plant relationships, salt absorption, translocation, the fate and occurrence of various essential and nonessential elements within the plant body and limiting factors affecting plant growth and yield. An introductory chapter and shorter references in subsequent chapters provide an appropriate historical prospective. Emphasis is placed on the Tracheophyta but one chapter is devoted to the roles of mineral elements in nonvascular plants. References to nonvascular plants also occur in other chapters where comparisons between lower and higher plants are drawn. For the practical minded reader fairly extensive and lucid treatments of hydroponics, problems of soil salinity, fertilization and soil fertility and the causes and symptoms of mineral deficiencies are included.
Inorganic Plant Nutrition is well written and illustrated and is fairly free of editorial errors. About equal emphasis is placed on the major topics considered and all are developed quite well. Each chapter is followed by an extensive bibliography containing numerous recent references to the primary literature. Because much of the text is extensively documented and detailed, a number of chapters like the ones on the roles of macronutrients and micronutrients in plants are a bit encyclopedic and therefore may have less appeal to beginning students. A less inclusive reference stressing intrepretation with fewer citations such as the recent publication by E. Epstein (Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives) would be better for most undergraduates.
Inorganic plant nutrition is an authoritative book Authored by an individual who has made a number of valuable contribution to the subject of mineral nutrition in green plants. Because of its completeness and readability this book will prove valuable to advanced students of plant physiology, soil science and related fields.
David H. Benzing Oberlin College
MEGGERS, BETTY, EDWARD S. AYENSU, and W. DONALD DUCKWORTH. (eds.) Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and South America: A Comparative Review. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 1973. 350 pp. $15.00 Cloth; $5.95 Paper.
Three years ago, the Organization for Tropical Biology was to have held its fourth International Symposium in Ghana, Africa. Because of lack of funding, the meeting was never held, but the papers prepared for delivery have now been assembled and published. Nine of these papers, almost a half of the volume, are devoted to plants.
The first six articles deal essentially with the taxonomic similarities and differences of the floras of tropical Africa and South America. Delevoryas' article stresses the similarities of the pre-Cretaceous floras whereas Richards points out the most striking differences in modern plants. After a thorough examination of the distributions of numerous Southern Hemisphere plant families, Thorne concludes that long distance dispersal, rather than continental drift, lies behind most of the present floristic relationships. A. C: Smith, concerned primarily with "primitive Ranalian families" strongly asserts that cross continental migrations were of little importance in the dispersal of angiosperms. Yet, he seems to ignore the fossil record from Antarctica and the decidely austral elements mentioned by both Thorne and Moore. Hal Moore's interesting and comprehensive treatment of the Palmae, is one of the few papers to mention the role of his taxa in tropical forest ecosystems. Somewhat ironically we find that palms are essentially not rainforest species but rather occur early in succession or belong to savanna or marsh communities. Moore also discusses relationships between the continents and correlates some South American distributional patterns with recent zoological evidence. Finally, Langenheim treats the Leguminoseous resin-producing species of Africa and South America showing that close similarities seem to demand a postulation of recent divergence.
Two articles on anatomy of tropical plants by Thomlinson and Gill, and Ayensu highlight the need for studies on the processes of development and adaptive significance of anatomical features of tropical plants.
The last botanical article by Herbert Baker discusses convergent pollinations systems (principally by bats) found in the forests of the two continents.
The remaining papers deal with various animal groups, including man. Several of these, deserve mention. Jago's paper on grasshoppers is one of the most ecologically oriented articles in the symposium. He documents the correlation between geographical replacement of species and climatic differences and propounds a theory (somewhat misleading to me) of the rainforest as a "species sink" and the transequatorial areas as "species dynamos." Vanzolini's contribution throws out the tantalizing suggestion that the rainforest of South America is not rich in species of its own accord, but owes its diversity to invasions from the surrounding areas such as the Andes, the Planalto, etc. One of the most useful papers will be that of Johnson and Bowden because it compiles hard data on the probabilities of organisms being blown across the southern Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
In addition to these papers, there are extensive comparative reviews of many animal groups including ants, fishes, amphibians, birds and mammals.
The last six articles deal with man in the tropical forests. Especially absorbing is Megger's recounting of distinct social organizations of two Amazonian Indian tribes.
From these diverse papers, several important facts emerge. One is the accentuated richness of species in the rainforests of South America compared to Africa. A second is the importance of historical factors in deter-mining the present complexity of an ecosystem.
The proported purpose of the symposium was to point out convergences in tropical forests in the two continents and to emphasize problems of adaptations which the constituent plants and animals face. Stated in this way, most of the papers fail to achieve these aims. In part this failure is due to the fact that most of the contributors are systematists and not ecologists. It is in the comprehensiveness of the taxonomic and biogeographical data and that volume excells. The editors perhaps could have found a more appropriate title for the book.
Except for this one drawback there are a few other minor detractions. Nowhere, except perhaps in Amaden's paper on birds, is there a map of the areas treated nor is the "tropical forest" ever defined. Moreover, especially for one not schooled in geography, it is difficult to visualize the localities mentioned in the different papers. Also, several terms such as "white water," "black water," "terse firme," etc., are mentioned long before they are explained. A good, general introductory chapter would have been useful.
All in all, the collection is interesting and most of the articles are well written and presented. Because of the comprehensiveness of the reviews, the volume is a necessity for any evolutionary biologist interested in the flora and fauna of the lowland forested areas of tropical South America and Africa. The reasonable price of the paperback copy should, moreover, put it well within everyone's reach.
Beryl B. Simpson Smithsonian Institution
MORWOOD, WILLIAM. Traveler in a Vanished Landscape. The Life & Times of David Douglas, Botanical Explorer. Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., New York, 1973, 24,1 pp. $7.95.
To most Americans Douglas suggests a "fir", to the Scot, a pungent red currant blooming in city squares, to the Briton, gay yellow lupines coloring gardens along the Thames. Actually Douglas was the answer of the hour: a Scot who discovered for botany and horticulture hundreds of plants in many a "vanished landscape" of the Pacific Northwest and California, who zealously collected seeds and plant specimens, tramped, canoed, and voyaged with his dog Billy, braved bears and arrows, until on the slopes of Mauna Kea he "expired in the arms of victory."
The power of the Douglas story has been tremendous. From a partial journal of his travels — that for the most significant period was lost in British Columbia's Red Rock Rapids — a few surviving letters to his mentor Hooker and his encourager Joseph Sabine, and a single portrait, have come books and accounts about Douglas by Barnston (1860), Alice Coats (1970), Eifert (1965), Harvey (1947), W. J. Hooker (1836), J. T. Howell (1937). Jepson (1933), Murray (1931), Rogers (1949) and others not mentioned in Morwood's "selected bibliography." Where does Morwood fit on this bookshelf'? None of these authors match Morwood for telling a story. But it is not always history. He tells as the jacket promises, "a good adventure story which, in effect, Douglas's life was." With many a felicitous turn of phrase the life and times of' David Douglas are related in twelve chapters, with no documentation, but with a familiarity born of the author's residence in California.
It is when Morwood strays from Douglas's path that he stumbles historically. Thomas Nuttall was not the first botanist to collect west of the Mississippi. The Lewis and Clark expedition lost a collection made on the westward journey, but on the return recollected specimens classic in American botany and described by Pursh. To say that the Lewis collections had been "spirited away through neglect and larceny" is a journalistic breeze. Professor Barton's neglect and the opportunism of Pursh — who departed for England, not Germany, and certainly was not destined for a "niche in the pantheon of infamy" — involved relation-ships clearly not comprehended by Morwood. That the publication of English plant descriptions in Nuttall's Genera "shocked conventional botanist," or that Old Curious "never minded shocking people" anyway, sounds odd indeed. The naming of the legume Hosackia brought dubious immortality for the gentle generous New York physician since it is now but an obscure synonym of the genus Lotus. Wild oats (Auena fatua) as a Mediterranean weed was introduced into California during the early mission period, according to Samuel Bonsall Parish, quite full fifty years before Douglas noted it near Mission Santa Clara in 1832.
Morwood laces the story with probabilities: "again we must deal in probabilities" (p. 115), "if Douglas ever saw a bull-and bear fight, it was that summer at Mission San Jose" (p. 168), etc. Chief of these probabilities is that of Douglas's falling in love with the "dark lady of the Chinook," fathering a child by her and her early death and burial at sea, events not. heretofore vouchsafed by any of Douglas's biographers.
California botanists will notice Morwood's oversight of Paeonia californica, a second endemic peony of the North American continent (cf. p. 84). Incidentally, anyone wishing to sidestep strictures on the reproduction of any part of the book may find that most of the line drawings illustrating this Douglas story were published at the turn of the century by Mary Elizabeth Parsons in her highly successful Wild Flowers of California; for example, the peony of p. 8:3 is from Parsons, p. :347. The easy style of Margaret Warriner Buck, the artist, which meant so much to the public young and old for so long, has not been acknowledged. Line drawings from the Field Book of Western Wild Flowers by Margaret (Neilson) Armstrong were also used, without notice. (Morwood, p. 55, orphaned the wintergreen included with salal by Armstrong, p.:343). The writings of Professor Jepson predicated the route of Douglas (cf. p. 171) by means of the ranges of endemic species of'California, for example those in the Mt. Diablo region.
Don David El Botanico journeys down the El Camino Real in Chapter Nine at least as far as Santa Barbara. If Morwood's maps interest you, compare it with Susan Delano McKelvey's classic on the Transmississippi West for the travels of Douglas and, importantly, of those who followed him up and down California.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620