Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1979 v25 No 2 SummerActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.


Richard M. Klein, Editor, Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405
Editorial Board
Jerry D. Davis - University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI
Peter Heywood - Brown University, Providence, RI
Anitra Thorhaug - Florida International University, Key Biscayne, FL
Richard P. Wunderlin - University of South Florida, Tampa, FL

Change of Address. Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr. Barbara D. Webster, Department of Agronomy & Range Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Subscriptions for libraries and for persons not members of the Society can be obtained for $10.00 per year. Orders plus checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." should be sent directly to the Treasurer of the Society.

Manuscripts for the Plant Science Bulletin should be submitted to the editor. The Bulletin welcomes announcements, notes, notices and items of general interest to members of the Botanical Society and to the botanical community at large. No charge for inclusion of notices is made. Material submitted must be typed, double-spaced and in duplicate. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

Microfilms of the Plant Science Bulletin are available from University Microfilms, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.

Mystery Plants: An Organismal Approach to Teaching College Botany
Alternative Materials for use in Introductory Laboratories on Angiosperm Reproduction
The Plant Science Bulletin: Where do we go from here?


Mystery Plants: An Organismal Approach to Teaching College Botany
David Webb and Dawn Gayzagian
Simmons College, Boston, MA 02115

When introduced as botanists, we are usually asked to diagnose an unknown plant's disease or quizzed on the care and feeding of someone's favorite ornamental or vegetable. As botany graduate students, it became apparent that the basic practices of plant cultivation were absent from introductory courses to which most students were exposed. Growing plants in the laboratory seemed too difficult or, perhaps, too applied to be included in undergraduate plant science courses. Most of us confessed a lack of basic cultivation skills and we were too involved in our research to seek answers to these frequent, practical problems. The idea for a possible educational solution arose when we were exposed to our first "Mystery Plant".

As part of the Plant Organography course at the University of Montana, Dr. David Bilderback introduced a guest "Mystery Plant" each week. After the guest had "signed in" for analysis, students gathered around it and discussed its external morphology. Parts were removed and examined with dissecting and compound microscopes. Surface details like the shape of epidermal cells, the arrangement of stomates and the structure of trichomes were studied by observing whole organs with the low power objective of a compound microscope. Further surface details of flat structures like leaves were observed at higher magnifications by applying glycerin to a small piece of the organ placed on a microscope slide before adding a cover glass. Finally, sections from various organs were sliced by hand with razor blades and floated in a petri dish of distilled water. The thinnest sections were removed with forceps and stained for 30 seconds in 0.05% aqueous toluidine blue (Koch, 1973) or for several minutes in saturated phloroglucinol in 18070 HCl (Foster, 1942). A sense of discovery and excitement pervaded our work and we circulated around the laboratory to observe the internal organization of each others sections. At the end of each laboratory the best sections were studied and discussed by the entire group. These were easily saved for several weeks by replacing the aqueous solution with glycerin and sealing the edge of the cover glass with clear nail polish.

Hand sectioning allowed students to sample structures for which commercial slides were unavailable. Unexpected results like the release of coiled secondary walls from severed vessels and determining tissue depth by continuous fine focusing added to the value of this technique. Staining for cell contents (Foster, 1942; Koch, 1973; Kaufman et al., 1975) and the use of polarizing filters (Klosevych, 1975) to study wall birefringence enhanced the usefulness of hand sections. Most large, firm organs were easily sectioned by holding them between thumb and index finger and carefully drawing the razor blade through the specimen. Flexible structures like leaves were supported by cylinders of pith or fresh carrot (Foster, 1942).

At Simmons College, in Plant Biology and non-majors Horticulture, this concept was extended to plants which students grew from seed. During the first laboratory each student selected two packages of "Mystery Seeds", and received instructions for germinating and growing them. Seeds were sown in styrofoam cups filled with Cornell Peat-lite mix (White, 1976). Numbered stakes were placed in the pots which were tightly covered with polyethylene sandwich bags (Crokett, 1971, 1977, 1978). After germination, the plastic bags were removed and each student chose one plant for detailed study. Dated measurements of percent germination, germination pattern, stem height, leaf number, leaf type, leaf veination and flower structure were recorded in a notebook which was submitted with a summary paper at the end of the term. The regular laboratory schedule included morphological and physiological topics as well as "Mystery Organs" which prepared students to analyze their own plant's morphology and physiology. Students identified their "Mystery Plants" by referring to Crokett (1971), Macoboy (1971), Prucha (1976) or Reilly (1978). Students expanded their projects by performing an experiment with their plants or by doing a library research project on the horticultural, ethnobotanical, medicinal or artistic aspects of their "Mystery Plant" or its relatives. Some students designed their own original artistic or literary works to expand their projects.

Dwarf cultivars of Sweet Alyssum, Bachelor's Button, Cigar Flower, Gilia, Marigold, Mimulus, Sweet-pea, Scarlet Phlox, Sweet William, Toadflax and Zinnia germinated in 5 to 10 days at 21C and flowered in 8 to 10 weeks at 21-26C, with an 18-20 hr photoperiod, at 800-1000 ft-c of cool white or Gro-Lux fluorescent light. Dwarf varieties of Lettuce, Cabbage, Tomato, Eggplant, Sweet Pepper, Cucumber, Cantaloupe, Squash, Peas and Beans are available from Geo. W. Park Seed Co. Inc., Greenwood, South Carolina. These
fast-growing plants were grown in containers to form an indoor vegetable garden. New dwarf annuals and vegetables are constantly being introduced and can be obtained from the major seed companies. Reilly (1978) presents precise germination instructions for most annuals and includes identifying photographs of seedlings and mature flowering plants.

Dwarf annuals and vegetables can be grown in a minimum of space in the classroom or in an empty hallway. A bank of fluorescent lights whose height can


be constantly adjusted to within two inches of the plants' uppermost foliage is the only necessary equipment. Some dwarf plants respond to gibberellic acid which makes them candidates for a simple hormone experiment and their rapid rate of flower bud formation also makes photoperiod experiments possible (Klein, 1979).

The excitement and satisfaction generated by these projects have convinced us that they are valuable learning experiences. Most students respond positively to the responsibility of growing their own plants and take personal pride in their healthy vegetative growth and flowering. This same sense of personal accomplishment is associated with successfully stained hand sections. Some of the artificiality associated with term papers is reduced because the students generate enough data from their observations to draw meaningful conclusions about the growth and development of their plants. The variety of plants in all stages of germination, leaf development and flowering fosters communication among the students and between students and instructors. The increased visibility of plants in this Biology Department has stimulated student interest in plant science. The study of entire plants in Botany courses allows most students to more readily understand the integrated structure and function of plant organs and to transfer their knowledge to unfamiliar plants. Students also gain familiarity with basic gardening skills which they use to grow their own plants. The volume of questions about plants has increased since these projects were initiated and our answers have become more knowledgeable.

Crockett, James Underwood. 1971. Annuals. The Time-Life Encyclopedia of Gardening. Time-Life Books, N.Y.
---- 1977. Crokett's Victory Garden. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.
---- 1978. Crokett's Indoor Garden. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.
---- Foster, Adriance S. 1942. Practical Plant Anatomy. Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., Huntington, N.Y.
---- Kaufman, Peter B., Labavitch, John, Anderson- Prouty, Anne and Ghosheh, Najati S. 1975. Laboratory Experiments in Plant Physiology. Macmillan Publishing Co., N.Y.
---- Klein, Deana T. 1979. Photoperiod experiment for undergraduate plant physiology. Plant Science Bulletin, 24:41-42.
---- Klosevych, Stanley. 1975. Microscopy and photomicrography. Part V. J. Biol. Photographic Assoc., 43:119-139.
---- Koch, William J. 1973. Plants in the Laboratory. The Macmillan Co., N.Y.
---- Macoboy, Stirling. 1971. What Flower Is That. Crown Publishers, N.Y.
---- Prucha, Jaroslav. 1976. Flowers from Seed. Hamyln Pub. Group, N.Y.
---- Reilly, Ann. 1978. Park's Success with Seeds. Geo. W. Park Seed Co., Greenwood, S.C.
---- White, John W. 1976. Growing Media. In: Mastalerz, John W. (ed.) Bedding Plants. Pennsylvania Flower
Growers, University Park, Pa.

Alternative Materials for use in Introductory Laboratories on Angiosperm Reproduction
Randall J. Ameele, Connecticut College, New London, Ct. 06320

The study of angiosperm reproduction in laboratories in General Biology, General Botany, and Plant Anatomy more often than not centers on an examination of sporogenesis and gametogenesis in Lilium,using prepared slides. Possibly a token fresh lily specimen adorns the instructor's desk. While there are, indeed, things to be learned from such material, this pedagogical tack, when used alone, can be objectionable for several reasons: 1) It is purely an "all- prepared" lab, with no hands-on involvement. Certainly prepared slides provide views of certain materials that could not be provided otherwise, but total immersion is unnecessary. Prepared slides, unfortunately, gain bad reputations not because they are unmeaningful, but simply overused. 2) Too often the examination of Lilium slides becomes, to the student, a study of meiosis and little else. While reduction division is an important concept here, the student's obsession with finding an anaphase figure diverts attention from ovules, carpels, tapetum, and anything else botanical. 3) While overemphasizing sporogenesis and gametogenesis, this approach neglects other important facets of angiosperm reproduction such as pollinator activity, floral structure in relation to pollination, pollen tube growth, and the structural adaptations of stigma, style and ovary in relation to pollen tube growth and eventual fertilization. 4) Most regrettably, because the classical approach often leaves the student with little knowledge of anything but embryo sacs and pollen grains, he or she has little or no feel for the beauty and complex interplay of the many other phenomena that are required to make a seed and has trouble putting sporogenesis and gametogenesis into perspective with the rest of the events of angiosperm reproduction. A lab that should be a stimulant and an exciting advertisement for


botanical science may be inactive and dull; little is learned for the effort.

The laboratory exercises in this report are not presented as the quintessential solution to all of the problems that seem to attend the classical approach but are offered for those interested in rerouting their efforts in the teaching of angiosperm reproduction. It is believed that they present a more comprehensive and balanced introduction to the subject, and one that involves more preparation and manipulation of the material by the student. Materials are easy to obtain and set up. The entertainment value that they possess is inherent, and not meant to be another shallow, grandstand attempt at selling science. The exercises have been used in this author's Plant Anatomy course during the past two years at Connecticut College. The reactions from students have been excellent.

A genus which provides excellent material for demonstrating a broad range of important concepts is Yucca (Liliaceae), comprising about 30 species and varieties throughout North and Central America. Some varieties are cultivated in gardens and are occasionally found as escapes. Thus, material can either be obtained from wild stands, from gardens, or can be self-grown. Yucca filamentosa is the most commonly cultivated species, and is the species upon which this report is based, but other species have the same pollination syndrome and general floral morphology and should be easily adaptable to these techniques. Inflorescences of most species are large, with numerous white showy flowers. Thus, only a few plants are needed for obtaining materials.

It is well-known that there is an obligate relationship between Yucca species and their pollinators in the moth genus Tegiticula, which includes 3-5 species (Baker, 1961). Some species (e.g., T. yuccasella, upon which this report is based), pollinate more than one species. At dusk, during anthesis, one can find numerous moths (1.5 cm long, white, with a large black eye) sitting inside the flowers. Mating pairs are often seen. A female collects a ball of putty-like pollen from the knobby filaments and inserts it into the stylar canal, thereby pollinating the flower. The stamen filaments and pistil are stout and fleshy to support the moth during this activity. The moth then inserts her ovipositor through the side of the ovary and lays her eggs. About three weeks after anthesis fruits are app. 3 cm long. Larvae have hatched inside and are feeding on the seeds which develop as a result of the moth's pollinating activity. At full development (late summer), larvae bore an exit hole through the ovary wall, pupate and overwinter to hatch as imagoes the next summer, whereafter the cycle is repeated.

For demonstrating this pollination syndrome in the classroom, a few collections are required. Flowers at anthesis can be frozen and then thawed before use to show pollination-related adaptations such as stout filaments, reduced, knobby anthers, and white color (white is the color preference of moths). Because the flowers exhibit typical monocot features (tepals, trimery), these concepts can also be emphasized if desired. Moths are easily captured and stored in formaldehyde for observation in the laboratory.

A second collection of fruits is made about one month after anthesis (adapt collecting times to local conditions). Thawed fruits are used by the student to locate moth larvae. Successive transverse sections through the entire fruit will reveal 1-several larvae, from 2-8 mm in length, lying in a curled position in a cavity formed from the larva's seed-eating activity. Larvae are white, with black mouth parts which are easily spotted by the student. Smaller, shed mouth parts are usually found in the feeding cavity as the larvae molt during their development.

Material from a third collection made in early fall (before fruit dehiscence) is used to reveal the exit holes made by the mature larvae and the pre-dehiscence appearance of the fruit, now 4-6 cm long.

The ovary and developing fruits of Yucca are also excellent for teaching the concept of the carpel. A thick transection stained in toluidine blue reveals under a dissecting microscope, an almost diagrammatic version of a tricarpellate ovary whose individual carpels are easily discerned. Dorsal and ventral carpellary bundles, axile placentation, stylar canal, false septa, and the dehiscence fissures within the true septa are all seen with ease, if desired.

A final collection of dehisced fruits made anytime in late fall or early winter represents the final developmental stage, showing the dry, septicidally-dehiscent


capsule, larval exit holes, partially chewed, aborted ovules (still white in color) and black, mature (non-eaten) seeds. This material shows clearly the similarities and differences between the ovary at anthesis and the mature fruit, and also avoids the "oranges and apples" concept often derived from examination of common supermarket fruits.

Mature Yucca seeds provide excellent material for study of concepts of seed structure. The hilum is easily seen, and the typical filamentous monocot embryo may be easily dissected from imbibed seeds and examined. The endosperm (here, "perisperm") and seed coat are also easily observed in this albuminous seed. Overwintered or stratified Yucca seeds show high viability on moist filter paper and thus provide excellent material for studying the structure and development of a non-grass monocot seedling. For further structural details of Yucca seeds and seedlings, see Arnott (1962).

Color transparencies can be taken at the collection times and projected during the laboratory to depict overall habit of the plant at anthesis and pollinating activity of the moths. The latter can be "caught" photographically almost any evening during anthesis. Such slides lend further authenticity to the materials.

It should be emphasized to the student that such a 1:1 relationship between plant and pollinator is relatively rare. However, apart from the specificity of its pollinators, the phenomena observed in Yucca are not atypical of the kinds of interplay and adaptations that occur among flowers and their pollinating vectors. This particular syndrome is chosen because it allows for relatively easy location, collection and management of all the relevant materials involved and is well-documented in readable, easily accessible literature (Baker, 1961; Faegri and van der Pijl, 1971) which can lead students into the rich and fascinating literature of pollination biology.

The Yucca system furnishes materials which emphasize pollinator activity, floral adaptation to pollinators, and general floral morphology and anatomy. An additional series of exercises can be performed which bear on another often-neglected facet of angiosperm reproduction, viz., the growth and pathway of the pollen tube.

Inflorescences of Gladiolus, readily available from florist shops, provide excellent material. Before dissecting the flower, general comments can be made by the instructor about the pollination syndrome. Gladiolus is moth-pollinated (Percival, 1965) and displays a number of characteristics related to this phenomenon. The flowers produce scent only at night, the time when most moths are active. Abundant nectar is secreted by nectariferous tissue of the petals where they merge with the inferior ovary (students can easily taste the nectar). Moths suck the nectar as they hover in front of the flower, which has an open, flat-faced corolla with no landing platform (a typical accommodation to hovering pollinators). Most cultivars display contrasting streaks of color--nectar guides--along the inner surface of the corolla. Scent and nectar production are extremely important aspects of angiosperm reproduction. They are not strongly exhibited by Yucca because the proximity of the pupae to the plants makes long-distance attraction of the moths unnecessary.

The pathway of the pollen tube in Gladiolus is easily revealed by the student. First, the entire pistil is isolated and examined under a dissecting microscope for perspective. After being pollinated, a stigma lobe is excised, placed on a depression slide, stained lightly with toluidine blue, washed, and the stigma papillae covered with pollen grains are observed. The papillae are large, unicellular, and covered by a cuticle. Thus, the stigma is of the dry type, i.e., no exudate is present (Esau, 1977). The student observes that the pollen grains do not float away on the slide, demonstrating the strong retention of the grains by the papillae. The instructor may explain that the pollen tubes penetrate the pappilar cuticle, grow between it and the wall of the papilla, then along the adaxial face of the stigma lobe and into the stylar canal.

Next, the student observes stained transections of the hollow style. Lay the style on a slide and place a toothpick alongside for support during sectioning. Lay the sections face down, stain, mount in aerosol and observe under a compound microscope, noting the mucilage-filled stylar canal through which the pollen tubes grow. The cuticle can be seen sloughed off into the canal. If desired, pollen tubes can be dissected out of the canal. Cut a .5 cm section of style lengthwise into halves, lay the halves on a slide (cut face up), stain with toluidine blue, and gently tease the tubes away from the tissue onto the slide. The tubes can be observed under a compound microscope. The darkly stained callose plugs aid in locating the tubes. Flowers should be pollinated 48 hr in advance to ensure that the tubes will be present in the stylar canal. If possible, have students tag and pollinate their own flowers beforehand.

A useful adjunct to this exercise is to have students germinate their own pollen in vitro, an exercise described in several General Botany laboratory texts (e.g., Balbach et al., 1977). Impatiens and Tradescantia work particularly well.

The final portion of the pollen tube pathway in Gladiolus is revealed in stained transections of the ovary. A ridge of tissue (obturator) is seen running along each axile placenta next to the funiculi, and is in direct contact with the micropyles of the anatropous ovules.

Thus, the student observes that there is a definite, prescribed route along which the pollen tubes grow (stigma, stylar canal, obturator) as they approach the ovules. The concept of transmitting tissue can be introduced, if desired (Esau, 1977). Chemotropic attraction is, of course, also involved.

The latter exercises complement the Yucca material


and together these activities present a balanced and relatively comprehensive introduction to many important phenomena of angiosperm reproduction. These exercises can easily be performed in 1-1½ hr. depending on class size, etc. Prepared slides or 2" x2" color transparencies (shown by the instructor) of Lilium sporogenesis and gametogenesis (available from Carolina Biological Supply Co.) may be included in the lab if desired, to complement the material presented herein.

Arnott, H. J. 1962. The seed, germination, and seedling of Yucca. Univ. Cal. Publ. Bot. 35:1-164.
Baker, H. G. 1961. The adaptations of flowering plants to nocturnal and crepuscular pollinators. Q. Rev.
Biol. 36:64-73.
Balbach, M. K., L. Bliss, and H. J. Fuller. 1977. A laboratory manual for general botany. 5th ed. Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, N. Y.
Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.
Faegri, K., and L. van der Pijl. 1971. The principles of pollination ecology. 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, N.Y.
Percival, M. 1965. Floral biology. Pergamon Press, N.Y.

Heslop-Harrison, J. (ed.). 1971. Pollen development and physiology. Butterworth, London.
Jensen, W. A. 1974. Reproduction in flowering plants. In A. W. Robards (ed.) Dynamic aspects of plant
ultra-structure, pp. 481-503. McGraw-Hill, London.
Kapil, R. N., and A. K. Bhatnager. 1975. A fresh look at the process of double fertilization in angiosperms.
Phytomorphology. 25:334-368.
Linskens, H. F. (ed.). 1974. Fertilization in higher plants. North-Holland Publishers, Amsterdam.


The special theme of the AIBS meetings to be held at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, August 12-17 is "Mid-American Grasslands--Prairie to Dust Bowl to Present". Emphasizing this theme is the all-day symposium "Grasses and Grasslands", arranged by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and cosponsored by the Ecological Society of America and the Systematic and Economic Botany Sections of the Botanical Society.

Other symposia arranged by sections of the Botanical Society and allied organizations are as follows.

"Leaf Structure and Function". Developmental, Physiological, and Structural Sections.
"Population Biology of Monocarpic Perennials". Ecological Section.
"Current Concepts of Paleozoic Seed Ferns". Paleobotanical Section, cosponsored by the Pteridological Section.
"Control of Differentiation in Volvox". Phycological Section, cosponsored by the Phycological Society of America and the Society of Protozoologists.
"Algae as Ecological Indicators". Phycological Section, cosponsored by the Phycological Society of America.
"Water Stress and Plant Metabolism". Physiological Section.
"Stress Photosynthesis". Physiological Section.
"Botany in China". Physiological Section, cosponsored by Ecological and Systematic Sections.
"Phytochemistry and Angiosperm Phylogeny". Phytochemical Section, cosponsored by Systematic Section and the American Society of Plant Taxonomists.
"The Importance of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Fern Taxonomy and Ecology". Pteridological Section jointly with The American Fern Society, cosponsored by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists jointly with the Systematic Section, the Phytochemical Section and the Paleobotanical Section.
"Cladistics: Prospects and Problems for Plant Systematics". American Society of Plant Taxonomists, cosponsored by the Systematic Section.
"Who's Teaching Botany on Today's College Campus?". Teaching Section.
"Current and Future Trends in Faculty Evaluation". Teaching Section.

In addition to the above symposia a special lecture will be presented by the Historical Section. Professor K. L. Jones, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor will speak on "The study of the lives of scientists as a bridge between science and humanities".


The Fulbright Awards for 1980-1981 includes a program of visiting lecturers from the USSR to have Soviet scholars participate in academic programs for a semester or an academic year. International travel would be provided, but the host institution is asked to support the scholar with an appropriate stipend. Information can be obtained from the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, Suite 300, 11 DuPont Circle, Washington, DC 20036.

Advanced Research Fellowships in India are being


offered without restriction as to field for 1980-1981. The fellowship includes stipend, allowances and international travel. Application deadline is 1 July 1979. Contact Council for the International Exchange of Scholars, Suite 300, 11 DuPont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036.

A collection of 3 x 5 index cards is available to a serious student of the hybridity of the flowering plants. Each card lists either the cross reported in the literature and reference to the authority or, in a separate set, the full citation. There are ca. 27,000 cards in the sets. Contact Dr. Irving Knobloch, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823.

Dr. J. Wiegers of the Hugo de Vries Laboratorium of the Universiteit van Amsterdam would like to contact a Rosaceae specialist in the United States to discuss problems and to exchange herbarium material. Dr. Wiegers is especially interested in receiving fresh pollen and seeds from the three species recognized in the United States. Dr. Wiegers can be reached at the de Vries Laboratorium, Sarphatistraat 221, Amsterdam 1018 BX, Netherlands.

Edition Four of the Species Plantarum, credited to Linnaeus by the author Willdenow, appeared in parts over a 13-year period. No index to the 16,092 species treated in the 7,016 pages has hitherto been prepared. In order to facilitate use of the volumes, an alphabetical index prepared as an offset copy of a computer printout and with a paper cover can be obtained from Dr. Neil A. Harriman, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, WI 54901 for $3.00 postpaid.

BioScience, a publication of the American Institute of Biological Sciences is most interested in increasing the number and quality of unsolicited manuscripts with special emphasis on narrative description of major research. Contact Walter G. Peter III, Managing Editor at 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209.

The American Fern Society announces a new monograph series, PTERIDOLOGIA, to publish monographs on ferns and fern-allies. The first issue will contain Dr. David Wagner's Systematics of Polystichum in western North America north of Mexico, to be published in the spring of 1979. Publication will be irregular with one or two monographs a year. Dr. Alan R. Smith, University of California-Berkeley is editor with Prof. D. R. Farrar, Dr. D. B. Lellinger and Dr. T. R. Webster as associates. Pre-publication orders for individual issues and orders for the series should be placed with Dr. D. B. Lellinger, U.S. National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560.

The Vermont Law School of South Royalton, VT 05068 has recently launched an environmental law education program leading to a graduate degree in environmental law. The program is open to lawyers and non-lawyers with an environmental background. Contact Dr. Richard O. Brooks, Director, Environmental Law Center, Vermont Law School.

Flora Vitiensis Nova: A New Flora of Fiji has been initiated. Volume 1 was published in January 1979 and may be obtained for $48 from the Publication Office, Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 340, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 96765.

The American Association for the Advancement of Science has a project on the handicapped in science operated under a grant from the Rehabilitation Services Administration. Interested persons should contact the Project on the Handicapped in Science, AAAS, 1776 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036.


A PHYSIOLOGIST/PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGIST is being sought by the Department of Biology, Harvard University. The position as a tenured professorship involves teaching and research in whole plant physiology and/or physiological ecology. A specialist in photosynthesis or water relations is preferred who will join a group of ecologists and population biologists. Letters of application, resume and three references should be sent by 1 August 1979 to Prof. Peter S. Ashton, Herbaria Building, 22 Divinity Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138.

A PHYTOTRON ASSISTANT PROFESSOR is being sought by North Carolina State University. It is a 12 month position with responsibility divided equally between phytotron management and research. The Ph.D. is required, preferably with experience in environmental physiology. Biographical and professional data and two letters of recommendation should be sent to Dr. R. J. Downs, Director of the Phytotron, 2003 Gardner, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27650.

A POSTGRADUATE INTERNSHIP IN CURATORIAL TECHNIQUES AND HERBARIUM MANAGEMENT is being offered by the New York Botanical Garden. The position, for one year beginning September 1979 is supported by the National Museum Act. Applications and three letters of recommendation should be sent to Dr. Patricia K. Holmgren, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458.



THE BOTANY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF PANAMA, a symposium to herald completion of the Flora of Panama will be held 1-4 April 1980 and will include invited and contributed papers. The symposium is sponsored jointly by the Missouri Botanical Garden, the University of Panama and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Contact Prof. Mireya D. Correa A., Escuela de Ciencias Naturales Y Farmacia, Estafeta Universitaria, University of Panama, Republic of Panama.

THE SECOND CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH IN THE NATIONAL PARKS, sponsored by the American Institute of Biological Sciences and the U.S. National Park Service will be held in San Francisco on 26-30 November 1979. Contact Janet Barrett, Meetings Department, AIBS, 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209.

SUMMER FIELD STUDIES IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES will be conducted at the Franz Theodore Stone Laboratory of the Ohio State University at Put-in Bay, Ohio. Courses in field botany, community ecology and ecosystems, algae and higher aquatic plants will be offered in two terms, the first starting 18 June and the second on 23 July. Contact Dr. Ronald L. Stuckey, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210.

A FIELD COURSE IN PLANT TAXONOMY AND ECOLOGY will be offered at the Sagehen Creek Field Station of the University of California on 18 June-27 July, 1979. Contact Graduate Secretary, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

THE VII CONFERENCE OF THE ASIAN PACIFIC WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY will be held 26-30 November 1979 in Sidney, Australia. Contact The Secretary, P.O. Box 287, Haymarket, NSW 2001, Australia.

THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE ROLE OF WATER IN URBAN ECOLOGY will be held 27-31 August 1979 in Amsterdam. Contact M. K. Plaxton, P.O. Box 330, Amsterdam (Pays Bas) Netherlands.

THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF BIOMETEOROLOGY will be held on 9-14 September 1979 at Shefayim, Israel. Contact Israel Organizing Committee, ISB Congress, Israel Meteorological Society, P.O. Box 25, Bet Dagan, Israel.

AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT NUTRITION will be held 25-29 September 1979 in Varna, Bulgaria. Contact M. Popov Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Acad. Sci., Sofia 1113. Bulgaria.

THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC PROKARYOTES will be held 26 August-1 September 1979 in England. Contact Dr. Noel G. Carr, Department of Biochemistry, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool LG9 3BX, England.

THE SEVENTH SCIENTIFIC MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PHOTOBIOLOGY will be held in Asilomar, CA on 24-28 June 1979. Contact Amer. Soc. Photobiol., 4720 Montgomery Lane, Suite 506, Bethesda, MD 20014.

A GEOBOTANY CONFERENCE will be held on 1 March 1980 at Bowling Green State University to include invited papers in paleobotany, palynology and ecology. Contact Dr. Robert C. Romans, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403.

AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON PLANT MEMBRANE TRANSPORT will be held on 22-28 July 1979 in Toronto. Contact Dr. Jack Dainty, Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada.

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGISTS will meet 30 July-4 August 1979 with the American Society for Horticultural Science at the Ohio State University.

THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLANT GROWTH SUBSTANCES will be held at the University of Wisconsin on 23-26 July 1979. Contact Dr. F. Skoog, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706.

THE NINETEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL SOCIETY will be held 13-15 August 1979. Contact Dr. Paul Sorensen, Department of Biology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115.


The Teaching Section will sponsor two symposia at the annual meeting at Oklahoma State University on 12-17 August 1979. The first symposia, "Who's Teaching Botany on Today's College Campus?" will explore the more traditional approaches as well as the, non-major approach exemplified by courses in Practical Botany, Horticulture and Plants & Man courses. The second symposium will consider current and future trends in faculty evaluation. Department heads of various sized departments will address the topics of teaching evaluation, peer evaluation, faculty loads (teaching and research), and promotion and tenure.


Dr. Robert Joseph Rodin, Professor Emeritis of Biology at California Polytech College, San Luis Obispo died in June 1978.

The Plant Science Bulletin: Where do we go from here?
Alan R. Orr, University of Northern Iowa

The first issue of the Plant Science Bulletin rolled from the presses in January, 1955, under the watchful eye and leadership of its charter editor, Harry J. Fuller, and members of the Editorial Board, George Avery, Harlan Banks, Harriet Creighton, Sydney Greenfield and Paul Sears.

The Editorial Board established a general editorial and publication policy statement that has remained in place for 24 years. The statement states, in part, that the Bulletin should include 1) one feature article per issue of general interest to plant scientists, 2) a section devoted to personalia, 3) occasional articles of recent advances, 4) occasional material on non-academic careers and positions, 5) notices of fellowships, assistantships, teaching appointments and research appointments, 6) a section on specimens wanted and available, and 7) papers on teaching. In addition, the Bulletin was to serve a unifying function among plant scientists.

At the last council meeting of The Botanical Society of America, the Council voted to suspend publication of the Bulletin at the end of the 24th volume and appoint an advisory committee to make specific recommendations regarding 1) if the Bulletin should be continued as a publication of The Society, and 2) if it is to remain a publication, what form it should take.

The membership, in turn, at the last annual meeting voted to ask the Council to continue publishing the Bulletin while the advisory committee studied the matter. By the powers of the Executive Committee of the Council, the enactment of the Council's decision to suspend publication was delayed until the advisory committee's report is received at the next annual meeting in August 1979.

Where do we go from here? As part of charting the future course of the Bulletin, if any, the advisory committee (Alan Orr, David Dilcher, Patrick Healy, Diana Stein and Dieter Wilken) invites your responses and comments to the above question. Enclosed in this issue of the silver anniversary volume is a two page tear-out opinionnaire. Would you please take time today from your busy schedule and give the advisory committee and the council the benefit of your thoughts? These will be collated and made available to the membership.


Circle your response.

Hold it! Don't stop publishing the Plant Science Bulletin (PSB). I would be unhappy to see a useful "house organ" discontinued.
Strongly Agree             Agree             Neutral             Disagree            Strongly Disagree

Quite often I find the material in the PSB uninteresting.
Strongly Agree             Agree             Neutral             Disagree            Strongly Disagree

For me the PSB is a vital connection to The Botanical Society of America that keeps me "in touch" with other professionals.
Strongly Disagree             Disagree             Neutral             Agree                Strongly Agree

The PSB is one publication I grab out of the mailbox and read the same day it arrives.
Strongly Agree             Agree             Neutral             Disagree             Strongly Disagree

I have attended 0    1    2    3    4    5 annual meetings of The Botanical Society of America the past 5 years.

I believe the purpose of the Plant Science Bulletin should be to communicate scientific information, news and knowledge which cannot be appropriately published in The American Journal of Botany.
Strongly Disagree             Disagree             Neutral             Agree                Strongly Agree

I believe the PSB serves an important role as an informal history of the society by being a repository of events and attitudes which will be a value to historians of science.
Strongly Agree             Agree             Neutral             Disagree             Strongly Disagree

I believe a publication like the PSB widens the base of participation by society members.
Strongly Disagree             Disagree             Neutral             Agree                Strongly Agree

I believe the PSB does or could enhance an esprit de corps and thus contribute to a greater cohesiveness of the membership.
Strongly Agree             Agree             Neutral             Disagree             Strongly Disagree

My feeling is that the Plant Science Bulletin should include the following:

Forthcoming meetings and conferences               Agree                Disagree
Announcements of fellowships, grants, etc.            Disagree            Agree
Employment opportunities                              Agree                Disagree
Deaths                                                   Disagree            Agree
Business of the society                           Agree                Disagree
Exchange of teaching methods            Disagree            Agree
News about botanists                                    Agree                Disagree
Letters to the editor                            Disagree            Agree
Recent advances in research                      Agree                Disagree
Techniques in research                          Disagree            Agree
Book reviews                                          Agree                Disagree
Pending federal legislation                                  Disagree            Agree
Highlights of annual meetings             Agree                Disagree
Reports of non-society meetings              Disagree            Agree
Availability of teaching material             Agree                Disagree
Other                                                     Disagree            Agree

I would not be adverse to the inclusion of articles, as published in the PSB, in the American Journal of Botany.
Strongly Agree             Agree             Neutral             Disagree             Strongly Disagree

I encourage continued financial support of the PSB and would be willing, if necessary, to pay an additional amount through my dues.
Strongly Disagree             Disagree             Neutral             Agree                Strongly Agree

I would like to suggest to the editor and the council the following idea(s) regarding the contents of the Plant Science Bulletin.

Mail to: Dr. Alan Orr, Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50613



HASLAM, S. M. River Plants. The Macrophytic Vegetation of Watercourses. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, New York, and Melbourne. 1978. 396 pages + 27 plates. $14.95 paper- back, $62.50 hardcover.

River Plants broadly describes various physical factors which impinge on the growth of stream plants and formulates generalizations concerning the distribution of such plants as a function of these physical factors. Beginning chapters introduce pertinent features of the dynamics of stream flow, including descriptions of drainage types as related to topography and stream nutrient status. Emphasis throughout is on aquatic angiosperms, though occasional brief mention is made of bryophytes and algae. Major focus is directed toward approximately fifty British flowering plant species, of which small illustrations of each are provided, accompanied by a brief description of the typical habitat in which the plant in question might be expected to occur. In addition, for each of these species, an upper-case- letter-sized symbol is devised, each illustrative of a morphological feature peculiar to the plant, apparently in- tended to elicit a mental image of the plant. These symbols are later used as space-saving devices in text figures which present geographical distribution data on the various species. Distribution of the species is correlated with flow velocity, substrate type, topography, hydraulic and anchoring resistance of plants to water flow, degree of turbidity, susceptibility to erosion, rooting depths, channel width, channel depth, vulnerability to storm damage, light intensity, and nutrient levels, among others. Later chapters utilize these correlational data in a predictive fashion to explain gross distributional patterns observed along the width and length of streams. Vegetational patterns peculiar to streams of soft rock, hard rock, and of low current velocity are discussed. Although major emphasis is on British plants, three chapters are devoted to a consideration of vegetational patterns and habitats in selected North American streams, primarily limited to a few water-courses of several Great Lakes and eastern seaboard states, Quebec, and Ontario. Additional chapters are devoted to uses and benefits of stream plants, potential flood hazards caused by excessive growth of water plants, pollution and its effects on aquatics, and general considerations concerning management of growth of stream plants. A glossary of terms is included, as is a brief, but up-to-date bibliography of pertinent literature.

By the author's account, most of the voluminous quantity of data presented in this work is based on her original research. Indeed, River Plants is the first work in the English language which deals in a substantial sense with the subject, except for a much briefer treatment in H.B.N. Hynes' The Ecology of Running Waters (Univ. Toronto Press, 1970). The newness and bulk of data presented contribute to a sometimes annoying practice of speculation often not accompanied by a description of research methods and/or underlying evidence. In addition, one wonders about the validity of information presented on North America, all data having been collected on a six-week, 5000 mile excursion of the continent. Although the symbols for species mentioned above are used to good advantage in maps of British stream vegetation in later chapters, similar symbols devised for North American species are presented but never applied for any purpose later in the work. Text figures are abundant, generally well-drawn, and well-placed in relation to appropriate text discussions. However, the 27 black and white plates in the center of the book are not at all well-integrated with text discussions. Embarrassingly frequent typographical errors, variation in intensity of print from page to page, and the quality of the binding certainly do not justify the $62.50 hard cover price. The value of this work is derived mainly from the wealth of previously unavailable correlative and descriptive material relating physical factors and distributional patterns, and therefore should be of use to researchers, students, and individuals concerned with aquatic plant management.
Ronald L. Stuckey, The Ohio State University

TEVINI, M. AND H. K. LICHTENTHALER (eds.). Lipids and Lipid Polymers in Higher Plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 1977. 299 pages, illus.

This book comprises sixteen chapters based on papers presented at an international symposium organized by the editors and their colleagues in Karlsruhe in 1976. It deals with lipids in the widest sense and emphasizes the many aspects of structural and membrane lipids rather than bulk storage constituents. The book opens with a chapter on membrane organization by Sitte, followed by a masterly review by Goodwin on Prenyllipids and one by Mazliak on Glyco- and Phospholipids. These set the stage for separate sections on the Physiology and Biochemistry of Fatty acids and Glycerides, of Plant Steroids, and of the Prenyllipids and a final section on cutin and suberin. Each of the chapters is written by a recognized authority and the outcome is a very useful compilation of the remarkable progress that has been made in the past few years in elucidating the chemistry, biochemistry and biology of the multitude of plant compounds originating from acetyl CoA. There is a wealth of informative figures and tables, and extensive bibliographies follow each chapter. This is a valuable book for anyone interested in any aspect of lipid constituents in plants. The quality of


production of the book, and its price, are at the high level we have come to expect from Springer Verlag.
Harry Beevers, University of California

HANLIN, R. T. AND M. ULLOA. Atlas of Introductory Mycology. Hunter Publishing Co., Winston-Salem, North Carolina. 1979. 180 pp. $9.95.

This short, spiral-bound book is intended as a student aid in learning about fungal morphology. It is not meant to be used as a text or taxonomic key but to supplement these primary source materials. The taxonomic classification presented (following Ainsworth et al., An Advanced Treatise) is not complete as such but is based on families and genera studied in class. These fungi are either easily isolated from soil or fresh water and capable of growing on laboratory media (formulas given); or are easily obtainable. A brief description of isolation techniques is found in one chapter and numerous references throughout the book list original research reports for further details.

This brief volume is extensively illustrated with beautiful drawings by one of the authors (Prof. Ulloa) and with photographs of important stages in life histories. This book is a good buy; it would obviously be most useful in a general mycology laboratory, but would also be of value in the laboratory on fungi (which tend to be pitifully bad) in a general microbiology laboratory.
Deana T. Klein, St. Michael’s College

STREET, H. E. (ed.). Essays in Plant Taxonomy. Academic Press, London (U.S. Edition: Academic Press, New York). 1978. 289 pp., illust. 12.50/ $24.50.

This book is a collection of essays by English taxonomists, each of whom discusses a different aspect of
taxonomy. Two essays stand out from the rest because they center around plants rather than taxonomy. P. F. Yeo's essay on Euphrasia, a parasitic genus in the Scrophulariaceae, describes some of the taxonomic problems encountered in working with this group. In 'The Hippuris syndrome', C.D.K. Cook speculates on the incidence, in widely unrelated families, of aquatic plants having linear leaves in whorls. Though the basic idea of the paper is intriguing, he comes to no conclusion about this 'syndrome'.

In contrast to these two papers, most of the essays are concerned primarily with taxonomic difficulties and nomenclatural pitfalls. The first essay by D. H. Valentine is on ecological variation and deals mostly with subspecific taxa. The problem of distinguishing morphological plasticity from ecotypic variation is discussed, and the consequences of continued ecological separation outlined. 'Chemical evidence in plant taxonomy by P. M. Smith describes some of the ways chemical evidence may be helpful in determining relationships among populations, species, or orders. The third chapter discusses the role of cytology in modern taxonomy. The effect that breeding patterns have on variation and speciation is the subject of the following essay. Other topics discussed include the number of dichotomies and amount of information found in keys; classification of crop plants; conservation of genetic diversity; taxonomy of bryophytes; taxonomy of lichen-forming fungi; endemic taxa; British endemics; and the history of taxonomy in Europe. These present more of a self-conscious look at taxonomists than a view of the world of plants.

It is not immediately clear to whom this book will appeal. It is too technical to be enjoyed by the general reader, and too diverse to be of great use to the serious botanist. The essays do not form a cohesive unit, but instead highlight isolated problems in the field of taxonomy.
Josephine Ewing, University of Vermont

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