Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1996 v42 No 3 FallActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists

Table of Contents

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
BSA Concludes Annual Meeting in Seattle    66
1996 Dinner for All Botanists    66
Reports from the Committees    67
Reports from the Sections    69
Awards and Prizes at BSA Annual Meeting    72
New Corresponding Members of the Society Elected    74
Article: Conservation Corner
Research Natural Areas of the U.S. Forest Service    75
Personalia    76
In Memoriam    76
Funding Opportunities    76
Positions Available    77
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings    77
Book Reviews    79
Books Received    94
BSA Logo Items Available from the Business Office    96

Volume 42, Number 3: Autumn 1996 ISSN 0032-0919

Editor: Joe Leverich
Department of Biology,
Saint Louis University
3507 Laclede Ave.,
Saint Louis MO 63103-2010
Telephone: (314) 977-3903
Fax: (314) 977-3658


News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

BSA Concludes August Meeting in Seattle

The annual meeting of the Botanical Society was held August 4-8 in Seattle, Washington on the campus of the University of Washington. The participants agreed that the Seattle meeting was one of the most successful in the past few years. The University of Washington was a beautiful and appropriate setting for the gathering of Botanists. A large number of symposia and contributed paper sessions were offered in addition to the important business meetings of the Society and its various sections. There are a number of reports from this meeting in this issue of the Plant Science Bulletin, and additional reports will appear in future issues. Again this year the Society will focus on the Botany for the Next Millennium report. The Past-President's symposium, organized by Harry Homer, focused on Botany for the Next Millennium with presentations on Botany and education, society, industry and research. The BSA council and Executive Committee focused their discussions on the role of the Society in the of promotion education in botany.

Looking to the future, The Botanical Society will be meeting again with AIBS in August, 1997 in Montreal, Canada, and with in 1998 with the AIBS in Baltimore, Maryland. The 1999 meeting will be held in Saint Louis, Missouri in conjunction with the International Botanical Congress.

1996 Dinner for All Botanists

One of the high points of the 1996 Annual Meeting at the University of Washington, Seattle, was the Dinner for All Botanists on Wednesday evening, August 7. The attendance was large at both the pre-banquet mixer and at the banquet itself.

President Schaal reconized those seated at the head table, which in addition to most of the Officers of the Society, included representatives of our affliliated societies, The American Institute of Biological Sciences, The American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, the American Fern Society and the Torrey Botanical Society. President Schaal thanked the local representatives of each society for their hard work in making the Seattle meeting memorable.

Following dinner, President Schaal presented a number of awards and prizes to Members of the Society. These are detailed later in this and following issues of the Plant Science Bulletin. President-elect Daniel Crawford was then introduced for the evening's address. Dr. Crawford presenting an engaging account of his work titled "The Robinson Crusoe Islands: Plant Evolution, People and the Good Life."

The dinner was brought to a close as the outgoing President Schaal turned over the reins of the BSA to incoming President Crawford.


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Reports from the Committees:

Corresponding Members Committee

The Corresponding Members Committee received official notice from the Business Office that at the beginning of 1996 there were 47 living Corresponding Members on the Society List. Prior to and shortly after the deadline for receiving nominations on March 1, 1996, information was received and verified that two Corresponding Members on the list had died. Their names are P. Mehra, Punjab University, India (November, 1994) and Winfried Remy, Universitat Munster, Germany (December, 1995). The deaths of these two Corresponding Members reduced the total of living Corresponding Members to 45: 41 males; 4 females, prior to any committee deliberations and decisions.

By the March 1 deadline, five completed nominations were received through individual BSA member nominations. One additional nomination of Armando T. Hunziker (Argentina) was also received. However, since he was already a Corresponding Member (1994), his nominator and the individuals who wrote letters of sup-port were notified of this fact, and thanked for their "second" efforts.

The five nominees that were considered for Corresponding membership, in alphabetical order, are the following: Barbara G. Briggs, Australia (systematics/ morphology), Mary E. Dettmann, Australia (palynology), Daphne J. Osborne, England (physiology/plant development), Taylor A. Steeves, Canada (plant morphology and development), and Elizabeth Zindler-Frank, Germany (physiology/plant development).

The Corresponding Members Committee reviewed all of the credentials and letters of recommendation and support for each nominee, and unanimously recommended that all five nominees be elected as Corresponding Members of the Botanical Society of America. [See announcement of new Corresponding Members elsewhere in this issue of PSB for biographical sketches. -Ed.]
—Harry T. Horner, Chair

Darbaker Prize Committee

The committee this year consisted of Joby Marie Chesnick (as Chair), Jeff Johansen (Department of Biology, John Carroll University, University Heights, OH 44118), and Gary Floyd (College of Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1292). In November we sent out notices for Darbaker Prize nominations that later appeared in newletters of the Phycological Society of America and the Botanical Society of America. I also sent out an announcement over the internet on the ALGAE-L list. Of the nominations we received, the committee unanimously selected Dr. Dr. Gary W. Saunders (Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick) to receive the Darbaker. Although still early in his academic career, he has had a strong and consistent publication record focused on phylogenetics and systematics of red and brown algae using molecular and morphological analyses. This year the prize consisted of a $750 monetary award plus a certificate.
—Joby Marie Chesnick, Chair

Election Committee

This year the task of the Election Committee was to obtain two candidates each for the elected positions of President Elect and Program Director. The Election Committee consisted of Darleen DeMason, Gerald Gastony, Linda Graham, Scott Russell, Grady Webster, and Harry Homer, Chair. Nominations were received from the membership with a deadline of December 1, 1995. Seventeen names were received for each of the two positions.

The committee review and discussed these names, and individually rank ordered them. The final

(continued, p. 68)

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN Editorial Committee for Volume 42

Robert E. Wyatt (1996)
Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens GA 30602

James D. Mauseth (1997)
Dept. of Botany
University of Texas
Austin TX 78713

Allison A. Snow (1998)
Dept. of Plant Biology
Ohio State University
Columbus OH 43210

Nickolas M. Waser (1999)
Dept. of Biology
University of California
Riverside CA 92521

P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis MO 63166

Page 67

(Continued from p, 67)

rankings were approved by the committee, and the top names were contacted by the Chair. The following members accepted having their names placed on the ballot as candidates. President Elect—Nancy G. Dengler, University of Toronto, and Donald R. Kaplan, University of California. Program Director — Wayne J. Elisens, University of Oklahoma, and Scott D. Russell, University of Oklahoma.

These names and biographical sketches (created by the candidates) were forwarded to the Society business office where the ballots were made and mailed to the voting membership. A deadline of June 30 was placed on the ballots for their receipt by the Chair. Ballots were counted and tallied by the office staff of the Department of Botany. There were a total of 460 votes cast for President Elect and a total of 445 votes cast for Program Director. The candidates receiving the majority of votes and thus elected are President Elect — Nancy G. Dengler (1996-1997) and Wayne J. Elisens (1996-1999).
—Harry T. Horner, Chair

Esau Award Committee

1995 - Thirteen presentations were evaluated for the award; nine were in co-competition for the Moseley Award. The award was presented to John C. Runions for his paper (with John N. Owens) entitled "Pollen scavenging in spruce and evolution of the conifer pollen drop." The paper combined careful observation of ordinary pollinations with direct experimental tests of hypotheses. The Committee was impressed with the highly professional mode of presentation, the thoughtful insights in-spired by careful observation, and the authors' placement of the significance of the work into a larger context.

Mr. Runions was presented with the award at the Banquet. Cynthia Jones sent a letter to Professor Esau informing her of the results of the competition and ex-pressing our continued appreciation of the gift that makes the Award possible. Letters were also sent to each of the students who competed, thanking them for their contributions and for the high standard set by their papers.

1996 - Twenty-one papers (two withdrawals being balanced by two late submissions) are scheduled to be evaluated for the award. Nine of the papers are in co-competition for the Sharp Award. This inclusive policy maximizes opportunity for students making presentations. We intend to coordinate our decision with the Moseley and Sharp Committees; the distinct criteria for each award should preclude any one paper being chosen to receive more than one award.

Jim Seago has done a wonderful job arranging the schedule to highlight student contributions, both coordinating the joint session with the Bryological Section, and grouping the student papers together in each of the sessions as a way of highlighting student contributions to the meetings.
—Michael L. Christianson, Chair

Moseley Award Committee

The 1996 committee was Ed Schneider (Santa Barbara Botanic Garden), Chair, Pamela Diggle (Dept. EPO Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder), and Jeff Osborn (Division of Science, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO).

The number of papers to be judged in 1996 is twelve (12); nine (9) from Structural/Development and three (3) from Paleobotanical Section, as determined by the awards committee in conjunction with Program Di-rectors of the two sections (Jim Seago and Jeff Osborn).

Susana Magallon-Puebla from the University of Chicago and Field Museum of Natural History was the 1995 Moseley Award recipient. Her paper was entitled "Floral remains of Hamamelidaceae from Campanian strata of Georgia."

Esau and Moseley Committees are meeting to ensure collaboration on judging and selection of awardees.
—Ed Schneider, Chair

Pelton Award Committee

Sarah C. Hake is the recipient of the Jeanette Siron Pelton Award in Plant Morphogenesis for 1996. The citation for the award reads as follows: "Using a genetic and molecular approach, Dr. Sarah Hake has made a significant impact on our understanding of the mechanisms of plant morphogenesis. She was the first to show that homeobox genes, know to be important regulators of morphological pattern formation in animals, also regulate plant development Further, the expression of plant homeobox genes appears to coincide with shoot formation during embryogenesis and to maintain the indeterminate nature of plant meristems. Recent original and innovative work has shown that both messenger RNA and proteins of these homeobox genes can move between cells, providing unique insights into the supracellular regulation of plant development."
—Nancy Dengler, Chair

Page 68

Reports from the Sections

Bryological and Lichenological Section

The section is co-sponsoring with the ABLS a special symposium "The Student." This symposium, organized by ABLS President-elect Brent Mishler, has the goal of attracting all students - including graduate students, undergraduates, and amateurs - interested in these organisms, to interact socially and scientifically. Students have been involved in all aspects of program organization, including Katie Clew and Judy Harpel who organized a two-part bryophyte and lichen foray. At present 36 students are presenting papers in the symposium and competing for the Sharp Award. The section will provide $700 toward a student travel award of $100 or $200 for each of 39 participating students, and $100 toward the Sharp Award. An additional evening symposium "The Regeneration Niche: Dispersal and Establishment of Bryophytes and Lichens," has been organized by Robin Kimmerer and Dale Vitt. The B and L Section is also co-sponsoring ($100) with ASPT and a number of BSA sections the Symposium "Use of Global Morphological Characters in Green Plant Phylogeny and Evolution." The section has an unusually full schedule, 50 contributed papers, 9 symposium papers, 12 posters, 2 panel discussions, and 4 workshops.
— Paula DePriest, Chair

Developmental and Structural Section

The Developmental and Structural Section currently has 401 members. The establishment of the Hofmeister Medal for Distinguished Contributions to Botany, the Botany in the Next Millenium report, and section membership and graduate student participation were discussed at the 1995 annual meeting. At the 1996 Seattle meeting members of the section are presenting 55 contributed papers and 9 posters. The section is sponsoring a symposium "The morphology and evolution of flowers: a tribute to the work of Shirley Tucker" organized by Pamela Diggle and Larry Hufford and cosponsoring with the Paleobotanical Seciton a symposium on "Use of global morphological characters in green plant phylogeny and evolution" organized by Linda Graham, Elizabeth Zimmer and Patricia Gensel. The 1996 Special Lecture will be presented by Shirley Tucker on "Floral evolution and development: testing hypotheses".
—Nancy Dengler, Chair Ecological Section

Ecological Section

At the 1996 meetings the Ecological Section is co-sponsoring a symposium with the USDA entitled "Wild-Crop Hybridization and the Ecological Impact of Escaped Transgenes" organized by Allison Snow, Ohio State University, and Timothy Spira, Clemson University. The Ecological Section has 64 papers, organized in five sessions, and 27 posters. These numbers are up from the 44 papers and 13 posters presented in San Diego last year. Section membership totals 520.

There are 13 entries for the Best Student Paper Award, slightly fewer than the numbers submitted the last two years. Judging has been organized by Kern Badger of Ball State. Last year, two students shared the award: Carolyn S. Keiffer, Ohio State whose paper was entitled "Seed germinatin, survival, biomass allocation and salt accumulation of five inland halophyte species," and James R. Bier, Indiana University, "Influence of fungal endophytes on the demography of two woodland grasses: effects of light, water and nutrient status." The cash award of$ 150 was split between these individuals. Keiffer will receive her award at the BSA banquet this year, but Bier will not be in attendance at the meeting.

Botany for the Next Millennium was discussed extensively at the 1995 section business meeting in San Diego. The discussion addressed ways that the section could help meet program goals in four areas: 1) publicity, 2) undergraduate education, 3) K-12 education, and 4) creating a national inventory of scholars and resources. Because effective communication among members of the section is essential in meeting these goals, establishing an e-mail list server was recognized as important. Technical difficulties prevented this from occurring this year, but it remains a priority of the section. We intend to use the e-mail list to distribute suggestions for how to improve the teaching of botany at all levels and for ways to disseminate information about research programs to the general public.

We used the Plant Science Bulletin for distributing Ecological Section news.

Section dues were increased from $1 to $2, generating $904. This averages less than $2 per member, primarily because there are old membership forms, listing dues as $1, still in circulation. The section spent $1,000 to support the 1996 symposium. Currently, there is $896.46 in the Cash Account, $1,000 in the Ecological Section allotment, and $1,044.24 in the Student Award Account.
— Brenda B. Casper, Chair

(continued, p. 70)

Page 69

Mycological Section

Our young section has had a busy year. Last year the BSA Council commented on suggested bylaws needed to formalize the Mycological Section. Those comments were distributed to the section members, comments were compiled, and suggestions were incorporated into the final bylaws through a vote of the membership. The bylaws were brought before the BSA Council on 4 August 1996 and approved.

David Hibbett is to be commended for organizing a symposium at the BSA meeting this past August on recent advances in mycology. Speakers discussed a broad range of topics including fossil fungi, lichens, ant-fungal symbioses, fungal genetics, and fungal tip growth. The last subject included impressive real-time video focusing on the role of the Spitzenkorper in tip growth. We had only a small number of contributed papers at the meeting this year. We urge members to think ahead to next year and plan to submit abstracts for the 1997 meeting in Montreal.

We established an award for the best student paper/poster presented at the meeting, but it was not given this year because no eligible student papers were presented. The award will be offered again next year. This will be the Atkinson award, named in honor of mycologist and first BSA president George F. Atkinson. An honorarium of $100 comes with the award.

We need your help. The Botanical Society of America has a program, Botany for the next Millennium, aimed at promoting botany on a national basis. BSA Council members, as a way to promote botany, have expressed an interest in assembling a set of laboratory exercises suitable for high school students. Many of the members of the Mycological Section have simple, effective exercises that are suitable or can easily be adapted for high school. Others may wish to construct such exercises. Members are urged to contact the section chair, Diane Greene, with ideas or exercises. Diane can be reached at 503-737-2468 or We would like to welcome our new secretary-treasurer to the Mycological Section. She is J. S. Shipman of Bunker Hill Community College in Boston, Massachusetts.
—Ken Curry, BSA Council Representative

Phycological Section

The section has 77 members. No official program was held because the Phycological Society of Maerica held its 50th anniversiary meeting in California two weeks earlier. However, two phycological papers were presented as part of the BSA program. Jeff Johansen of John Carroll University, University Heights, OH, was elected as section secretary for a three year term (1996-99). Mark J. Maguire, Lynda J. Goff and Annette W. Coleman were awared a $500 prize for the "Best Phycological Paper" publisged in AJB in 1995 as determined by a three person committee consisting of Jack R. Holt, Robert G. Kalinsky and Louise A. Lewis.
— Dan Wujek, Chair

Physiological Section

Participation by members of the Physiological Section continues to be quite low. The number of papers in San Diego was seven and the number of posters was seven. Since there were no student presenters, neither of the two student prizes was awarded this year. Attendance at this year's business meeting was also low; only two members were present.

Botany for the Next Millenium was one of the primary topics discussed at the business meeting. The section hopes to attract undergraduates to the annual meeting by partially funding the students using monies from the section. We hope to do this for the meeting in Montreal.
— Henri Roger Maurice, Chair

Phytochemical Section

At the 1995 Business Meeting, members present discussed the section's problems in attracting papers and attendees. In addition, the Section's low number of active participants makes it difficult to respond adequately to requests for information or action, such as helping with activities needed to promote Botany for the Next Millenium (BNM). One suggestion was that an appropriate BNM-related task for the Section might be to compile a list of botany or plant biology departments that provide phytochemical courses or graduate level study programs. Another suggestion was that we might prepare an outline for a botanical course with a significant phytochemical component, targeted at either the undergraduate or graduate level. However, no one present felt he or she had time available to coordinate either proposed activity.

The members present reiterated a desire to maintain the Phytochemical Section as a separate entity, despite its current size. Thus, the unusual small paper session will again be sponsored at the 1996 meeting, with a business meeting to follow.
—Susan S. Martin, Chair

Page 70

Tropical Biology Section

As one of the newer sections of the Botanical Society of America, the Tropical Biology Section has 284 members. Presently the section is seeking to increase its role in the annual meeting and to increase the presence of the Botanical Society of America at other meetings of tropical biologists. Only 10 abstracts were submitted to the section for this year's program, a number insufficient to warrent a separate session. Because the section has a high membership and subject matter overlap with the Ecology and Systematic Sections, we have organized co-sponsored sessions with a tropical theme. The Tropical Biology section is considering a solicited special paper presentation, a keynote speaker, as a prelude to an after-noon contributed paper session. The Tropical Biology section has agreed to cooperate on future programs with the Association for Tropical Biology and the Ecological Society of America.
— Joseph E. Armstrong, Chair

Mid-Continent Section

The Section met with the SWARM Division of AAAS in Flagstaff, AZ, June 2 - 6, 1996. The Section sponsored a symposium titled "Ecological and Evolutionary Significance of Hybridization". The speakers were Michael Windham, "Beyond hybrid sterility: the role of polyploidy in plant evolution"; Paul Keim, "The adaptive significance of interspecific introgression"; Loren Rieseberg, "Hybrid origin of diploid plant species"; and Thomas Whitham, "Hybrid plants and hybrid zones are repositories of biological diversity: the need for conservation". The Section held elections. Wayne

Elisens (Oklahoma University) was elected to the office of Chairperson and Randy Allen (Texas Tech University) was elected to the office of Vice-Chairperson. Both offices have three year terms. The Section will meet next year with the SWARM Division of AAAS at Texas A&M University, May 18 - 22, 1997.
— H. James Price, Chair

Southeastern Section

The section conducted its annual business meeting while co-hosting a breakfast with the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society on April 12th of this year during the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists on the campus of Georgia South-ern University in Statesboro, Georgia. A major activity sponsored by the section was a workshop entitled "Techniques for Studying Herbivory" conducted by Suzanne Koptur of Florida International University. The work-shop drew participants from 20 different institutions of the southeastern United States and is a continuation of the "Teaching Updates" that has been a sectional activity for several years. Mary A. McKenna of Howard University was elected as Chair of the Activities Committee, replacing Charles Werth of Texas Tech who has completed a three-year term in that post. In regard to "Botany for the Next Millenium," the March 1996 Newsletter urged members to develop at least one lecture from the executive summaries of Section Reports in that document for General Botany or General Biology courses. The members were urged to request copies of the section reports from the Business Office of BSA and to help students in our "zoocentric" world recognize tha fantastic array of plant/ animal interactions existing in the earth's biosphere. David Hill of Belmont University in Nashville, Tennessee completed his first year of the three-year term as Secretary-Treasurer of the Section.
— Joe E. Winstead, Chair

Awards and Prizes at BSA Annual Meeting

The following awards and prizes were announced on 7 August 1996, at the Dinner for All Botanists given by the Botanical Society of America (BSA) at its Annual Meeting held in Seattle, Washington, in conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Botanical Society of America Merit Awards

These awards are made to persons judged to have made outstanding contributions to botanical science. The first awards were made in 1956 at the 50th anniversary of the Botanical Society, and one or more have been presented each year since that time. This year Merit Awards went to three botanists.

To Hugh H. Iltis, distinguished botanist, for his research on the evolution of Zea mays and the systematics of Capparaceae, for his strong concern for the next generation of botanists in the U.S. and Mexico, for his extensive botanical field work and development of the University of Wisconsin herbarium, and for his devotion and tireless commitment to the preservation of biological resources.

To Karl J. Niklas, for his innovative and scholarly research on the paleobiochemistry of vascular and non-vascular fossil plants, for his almost single-handed development of the field of biomechanics, in particular the aerodynamics of wind pollination in extinct and extant seed plants, for his skilled communication of research findings, for being unfailingly helpful to his colleagues, for his talent as an award winning teacher, and for his service to the Botanical Society of America on several committees and as editor of American Journal of Botany.

To Robert F. Thorne, internationally renowned giant in the field of plant systematics for landmark contributions in understanding large-scale phylogenetic pat-terns in flowering plant evolution, for insightful papers in the field of plant geography, most notably those on major disjunctions in seed plants, South African-American plant relationships, Australasian rain forests, major floristic regions of North America and desert vegetation in south-western North America, and as an enthusiastic and inspirational teacher.

The Darbaker Prize

This award is made for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae. The recipient is selected by a Committee of the Botanical Society which bases its judgment primarily on papers published during the last two calendar years. The award this year went to Gary W. Saunders for work on the rhodophytic and chromophytic algae.

The Maynard F. Moseley Award

The Maynard F. Moseley Award was established to honor a career of dedicated teaching, scholarship and service to the furtherance of the botanical sciences.

The award recognizes a student paper that best advances our understanding of the plant anatomy and/or morphology of vascular plants within an evolutionary context. This year the award was given to Ranessa Cooper, Truman State University, for her paper with Jeffrey Osborn and Thomas Philbrick entitled "Comparative pollen morphology and ultrastructure of the Callitrichaceae."

The Katherine Esau Award

This award, established in 1985 with a gift from Dr. Esau, is given to the graduate student who presents the outstanding paper in developmental and structural botany at the annual meeting. This year's award went to Kenneth M. Cameron from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, for his talk entitled "Foliar architecture of the reticulate-veined vanilloid orchids."

The Jeanette Siron Pelton Award

The Conservation and Research Foundation honors the memory of Jeanette Siron Pelton with sponsor-ship of this award given for sustained and imaginative productivity in the field of experimental plant morphology. The award consists of a $1,000 premium to be given not more than annually. The award was presented this year to Sarah C. Hake for using a genetic molecular approach to make a significant impact on our understanding of the mechanisms of plant morphogenesis. She was the first to show that homeobox genes, known to be important regulators of morphological pattern formation in animals, also regulate plant development.

Special Service Award

In recognition of her six years of outstanding and dedicated service to the Botanical Society of America, including serving as Program Director, Chair of the Annual Meeting Committee, and BSA Representative for AIBS meetings, a Special Service Award was presented to Carol Baskin.

The Michael A. Cichan Award

This award established by the Botanical Society of America is named in honor of Michael A. Cichan. It was instituted to encourage work by young researchers at the interface of structural and evolutionary botany. The award is given to a scholar for a published paper in these areas. The Michael A. Cichan award for 1996 was presented to Drs. Jack B. Fisher, Fairchild Tropical Garden and Frank W. Ewers, Michigan State Univer-

Page 72

sity, for their work with the anatomy of lianas, and the paper "Vessel dimensions in liana and tree species of Gnetum (Gnetales)."

The Ecological Section Award

Each year the Ecological Section of the Botanical Society offers an award for the best student paper presented at the annual meetings. A judging committee evaluates each student presentation and selects a winner based on the quality of the work and the presentation. The recipient of the award receives a certificate, a cash award, and is a guest of the Ecological Section at the BSA banquet. There were two recipients of the award this year. James Robert Bier from Indiana University received an award for his paper entitled "Influence of fungal endophytes on the demography of two woodland grasses: effects of light, water, and nutrient stress." This work was supervised by Dr. Keith Clay. Also receiving an award was Carolyn Howes Kelffer, from Ohio University, for her paper entitled "Seed germination, survival, biomass allocation, and salt accumulation of five inland halophyte species." The work was supervised by Dr. Irwin Ungar.

The Margaret Menzel Award

This award is given by the Genetics Section for an outstanding paper presented in the contributed papers sessions of the annual meetings. This year's award went to Dr. Richard Whitkus, University of California, Riverside, for his paper with Doan Hanh and Timothy Lowry entitled "Genetic control of female sterility in Hawaiian Tetratnolopiutn (Asteraceae)."

The Physiological Section Award

Each year the Physiological Section presents the Li-Cor prize, which acknowledges the best presentation made by any student, regardless of subdiscipline, at the annual meeting. The award this year went to Edward M. Doran for his paper with Rose Cattolico entitled "Photoregulation of chloroplast gene expression in Heterosigma carterae."

The Distinguished Paper in Phycology Award

The Distinguished Paper in Phycology Award was initiated in 1991 to recognize the most outstanding manuscript published in the American Journal of Botany in a given year dealing with any aspect of algal research. This year's award went to Mark Maguire, Lynda Goff, and Annette Coleman for their paper entitled "In situ plastid and mitochondrial DNA determination: implication of the observed minimal plastid genome number."

The A. J. Sharp Award

This award is given for the best student paper presented in the American Bryological and Lichenological sessions. This year's award went to Scott LaGreca, Duke University, for his paper entitled "A phylogenetic evaluation of chemical variation in the Ramalina americana complex based on rDNA sequence data." Honorable mention went to Walter Bien of Drexel University for his paper "Seasonal growth patterns and niche dynamics of two interacting Sphgnum species from the New Jersey Pine Barrens."

The Edgar T. Wherry Award

This award is given for the best paper presented during the contributed papers session of the Pteridological Section. This award is in honor of Dr. Wherry's many contributions to the floristics and patterns of evolution of ferns. This year's award went to Warren D. Hank, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, for his paper with Clifford Parks and Mark Chase entitled "A comparison between tmL-F intergenic spacer and rbcL DNA sequence data: an example from Ophioglossaceae."

The George R. Cooley Award

This award is given annually by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for the best contributed paper in plant systematics presented at the annual meeting. This year's award was given to Lawrence M. Kelly from Cornell University and to Kenneth M. Cameron from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

The Jessie M. Greenman Award

The Jessie M. Greenman Award is presented each year by the Alumni Association of the Missouri Botanical Garden. It recognizes the paper judged best in vascular plant or bryophyte systematics based on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. This year's award went to Paul Kores for his publication "A systematic study of the genusAcianthus (Orchidaceae: Diuridae)," published as volume? of the journal Allertonia. This work was supervised by Dr. Steven P. Darwin.

The Lawrence Memorial Award

The Lawrence Menorial Fund was established to commemorate the life and achievements of Dr. George H. M. Lawrence. Proceeds from the fund are presented by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation of Carnegie-Mellon University and are used to support travel expenses of a doctoral candidate for research in systematic botany, horticulture, or the history of plant sciences. The award this year went to Amy J. Litt, a student of Dr, Scott Mori at the New York Botanical Garden, for her dissertation research on the phylogeny of the Vochysiaceae. The proceeds of the award will help sup-port her travel in Cameroon for field research.

The Sullivant Award

The Sullivant Award is presented by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society for an out-standing paperon bryophytes published in The Bryologist. The 1995 Award was presented to Stephen Sillet

The Tuckerman Award

The TuckermanAward is presented by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society for an outstanding paperon lichens published in The Bryolog ist. The 1995 Award was presented to Samuel Hammer.

Page 73

New Corresponding Members of the Society Elected

Five distinguished scientists were elected to Corresponding Membership in the Botanical Society of America at the Annual Business Meeting in Seattle. The Corresponding Members Committee was unanimous in recommending approval for Corresponding Membership for Drs. Barbara G. Briggs, Mary E. Dettmann, Daphne J. Osborne, Taylor A. Steeves, and Elizabeth Zindler-Frank.

Barbara G. Briggs, Senior Assistant Director at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, Australia, where she has served as a scientist and administrator. She has worked on the systematics and morphology of the Proteaceae, Restionaceae, and other members of the Myrtales. Her publications show breadth in taxonomy and methodology. A recent collaborative study involves using DNA sequences in the Restionaceae and related families. She has been instrumental in developing significant projects on the Flora of Australia and the Flora of New South Wales. She has aided many American workers who have visited Australia or have requested material from there. Together, her efforts have helped transform the research program at Sydney to world class status, particularly in the Pacific region.

Mary E. Dettmann, Australian Research Fellow in the Department of Botany, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia. Her areas of expertise for the past forty years have been botany and geology, and more specifically palynology, paleobotany, and paleoecology. She has concentrated on the palynological and paleobotanical Mesozoic and Tertiary floras of the southern hemisphere. Her extensive research experiences have allowed her to serve as a consultant in biostratigraphy and palynology for Australian and international petroleum exploration companies. Many of her palynological publications, including a book, are standard, cited references. Along with her research, she is considered to be an excellent educator. In 1993, she received an honorary doctorate from the University of Melbourne.

Daphne J. Osborne, Honorary Professor in Biology, Open University, Milton Keynes and Visiting Professor, Department of Plant Sciences, Oxford University, Oxford, England. Her area of specialty is plant physiology with an emphasis on understanding genetic controls of developmental processes such as aging, senescence in seeds, and hormonal regulatory systems in higher plants. Other important contributions made by her are in environmental regulatory systems, abscission, seed maturation and deterioration, and space biology. She has been active in botanical teaching and has served as Lecturer in Botany and Plant Development at Oxford for 33 years; and Lecturer in Botany at Churchill College in Cambridge, for 9 years. She has given lectures around the world and recently was awarded the Leverhulme Emeritus Fellowship.

Taylor A Steeves, Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. He is internationally known for his research in the areas of plant morphology and development. He has worked on nearly every aspect of the plant body, and his studies combine the developmental and evolutionary aspects of plant morphogenesis. His research interests gave birth to a book on Patterns in Plant Development which has been published in 1972 and 1989. He also has co-authored two other books. He still teaches and is considered an excellent mentor by his many students and postdocs. He has served in a variety of administrative capacities during his 36 years in Canada, and he has received numerous recognitions for his excellence in teaching and research.

Elisabeth Zindler-Frank, Academic Superior Advisor and Lecturer, Faculty of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany. Her area of research is plant physiology, specifically mineral nutrition as it relates to understanding the formation of calcium oxalate in higher plant cells. Her research has been unique in identifying key physiological questions and integrating them with data on structure, development, and systematics. Several of her key papers on members of the Legume Family are marked by her characteristic elegance. These publications have set the standard for future research in the area. Her teaching activities include plant physiology and anatomy, systematics, and vegetation science. She also supervises the small botanical garden at the University, and lectures to and counsels groups active in conservation.

Articles: Conservation Corner

Research Natural Areas of the U.S. Forest Service

Research Natural Areas (RNAs) of the US. Forest Service are lands within the National Forests that are conserved for research, monitoring, and education and to help in maintaining biological diversity. The Forest Service has permanently protected 326 RNAs in a national network that contains unique ecosystems as well as a representative group of ecosystem types, including forest, aquatic-riparian, shrubland, grassland and alpine habitats. These areas help to preserve the best remaining examples of pristine or relatively undisturbed natural communities for future generations, while providing sites for research and study today. They also can provide habitat for rare plants and animals that need special protection.

The Forest Service has had a long history of involvement with RNAs, beginning in 1927. In 1926, Forest Ranger J.A. Friebom examined a tract of land in the Coronado National Forest in Arizona to determine if it was appropriate for homesteading. He found the land unsuitable for agriculture, but suggested that it was valuable for timber production, streamflow protection and botanical study. The Natural Historical Society of Tucson took an interest in the land, and the following year the area was designated by the Secretary of Agriculture as the Santa Catalina Natural Area - the Forest Service' s first RNA. It was to be "so managed as to permit scientific studies of forest growth". In the early years of the program, forest cover types were the only focus of RNA selection, but today the network of RNAs on National Forests across the country represents a wide range of ecosystem types.

Other federal agencies have also established RNAs, including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Department of Interior, as well as the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Tennessee Valley Authority and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Criteria for establishing and managing RNAs differ among the agencies, but the objectives for which they are established are the same.

As the goal of RNA establishment has broadened, the Forest Service has begun to involve other partners in the establishment, management, and use of its RNAs. Various groups outside the federal government are interested in the preservation of natural areas, and the Forest Service enlists their aid to help maintain and extend its RNA system. These partners include state agencies, private organizations, universities, and interested individuals as well as conservation and professional organizations, such as The Nature Conservancy and the Natural Areas Association. Our partners have supported RNAs through activities such as building fences, gathering data, and setting up baseline monitoring programs.

Nominations for new RNAs can come from anyone, within or outside of the Forest Service, and are sent to the appropriate Forest Supervisor and Station Director. In general, proposed areas should be large enough so that key features may be protected. Proposed areas should also show no major disturbance by humans for the last 50 years. RNA candidates must be recommended in the Forest Plan, after an ecological assessment. Each candidate area is evaluated, and an establishment record is prepared for candidates that meet RNA requirements. After review, the establishment record is sent to the Regional Forester, who establishes RNAs.

RNAs can offer a wealth of biodiversity for dedicated researchers. Since they are protected in a natural state, RNAs provide valuable opportunities for non manipulative research, monitoring of long-term ecological change, comparison of the effects of resource management activities against unmanaged controls, and education. So scientists involved in a subject area such as botany, ecology, biology, forestry, or zoology, or carrying out studies for conservation organizations will find that these untouched preserves are ideal `laboratories' for non manipulative scientific research. Educators can use RNAs for activities such as field trips for upper-level students. RNAs also provide useful study areas for graduate students. Members of native plant societies and other conservation groups can visit RNAs.

For more information, contact any Re-search Station or Forest and ask how to get in touch with the RNA coordinator, or write or telephone the Research Natural Area Coordinator, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 96090, Washington, DC 20090-6090, 202/205-1149. — Margaret Devall, South-ern Research Station, U.S. Forest Service, 701 Loyola Ave., New Orleans LA 70113

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Neil Sawyer Receives GCA Award in Tropical Botany

Neil Sawyer, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Connecticut, has been awarded a research fellowship by the Garden Club of America (GCA). The awards were established to promote the preservation of tropical forests by enlarging the body of botanist with field experience. In association with the World Wildlife Fund, the GCA offers these grants that enable doctoral candidates to accomplish their field study in the world's tropical rain forests.

Sawyer's project is a conservation-oriented study of the cloud forest habitats of the Northern Andes' species of Solanaceae in order to identify the prevalence, extent, and taxonomic and geographic distribution of local endemism and beta diversity. Sawyer is a student of Greg Anderson at the University of Connecticut, Storrs.

In Memoriam

The Botanical Society has been notified that the following member has passed away: Barbara G. Bystrom of Victorville, California, a member of the Botanical Society since 1959.

Funding Opportunities

Bullard Fellowships in Forest Research

Each year Harvard University awards a limited number of Bullard Fellowships to individuals in biological, social, physical, and political sciences to promote advanced study, research or integration of subjects pertaining to forested ecosystems. The fellowships, which include stipends up to $30,000, are intended to provide individuals in mid-career with an opportunity to utilize the resources and to interact with personnel in any department within Harvard University in order to develop their own scientific and professional growth. In recent years Bullard Fellows have been associated with Harvard Forest, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and have worked in areas of ecology, forest management, policy, and conservation. Fellowships are available for periods ranging from four months to one year and can begin at any time in the year. Applications from international scientists, women and minorities are encouraged. Fellowships are not intended for graduate students or recent post-doctoral candidates. Further information may be obtained from: Committee on the Charles Bullard Fund for Forest Research, Harvard University, Harvard Forest, P.O. Box 68, Petersham MA 01366. Annual deadline for applications is February 1.

American Philosophical Society Grants

The American Philosophical Society announces that the Michaux grants in forest botany and silviculture will no longer be offered in a separate competition. Proposals in these fields are acceptedby the General Research program, but applicants must meet the eligibility requirements of the program.

Grants cover travel to the objects of research, purchase of photoreproductions of documents, and consumable professional supplies not available at the applicant's institution. Eligibility: Applicants are expected to have held the doctorate for at least one year. Foreign nationals applying from abroad must state precisely what objects of research, only available in the United States, need to be consulted.

Deadlines: January 1, March 1, July 1, and November 1 for decisions by mid-April, mid-June, mid-October, and mid-February, respectively.

Obtaining forms: Written requests for forms must indicate eligibity, specify the area of research, and state the proposed use of grant funds. Include a self-addressed mailing label. Telephone requests for forms cannot be honored. Write to Committee on Research, American Philosophical Society, 150 South Independence Mall East, Philadelphia PA 19106.

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Positions Available

Plant Systematics Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

The Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville invites applications for a tenure-track position in PLANT SYSTEMATICS at the Assistant Professor level. We seek applicants with broad training in botany and expertise in evolutionary biology. We are particularly interested in candidates who take a broad view of plant systematics, but who apply molecular techniques to problems in evolution, conservation biology or other related fields. The successful candidate must have a commitment to general education, interdisciplinary education, and working with undergraduate students. Teaching responsibilities include a course in modern plant systematics, shared responsibility for teaching general botany for biology majors, and participation in teaching botany/biology undergraduate and graduate courses. Candidates should exhibit potential for independent and innovative research and teaching, and a willingness to support the Ecology, Evolution and Environment specialization in Biology and the Environmental Studies Program. Qualifications: a PhD in botany or biology, teaching and post- doctoral experience. To apply, send a letter of application with a statement of your teaching and research interests, curriculum vitae, university transcripts, names and addresses of three persons who will serve as references, and reprints of no more than three publications to Chair, Botanist Search Committee, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 1651, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026. Re-view of applications will begin November 1, 1996.

Manager, Endangered Plant Research Chicago Botanic Garden

The Manager of Endangered Plant Research is responsible for developing and managing the program for preservation, propagation, and reintroduction of rare, threatened and endangered plants of the Greater Chicago region. Reporting to the Director of Research, the Manager has two direct reports; a research botanist and a research ecologist. The Garden supports a well-balanced, applied research program which addresses botanical, horticultural and conservation issues of the Midwest, with particular emphasis on the highly developed metropolitan region.

We seek an experienced program manager with a background in both laboratory research and field re-search. Qualified candidates must possess a doctoral degree in botany, ecology, horticulture or equivalent; experience in writing/administering grants supporting research initiatives; knowledge of budgeting, personnel management, and overall adminisration of a research department.For consideration contact: Richard M. King, Managing Partner, Kittleman & Associates, 300 South Wacker Drive, Suite 1710, Chicago IL 60606, phone (312) 986-1166, fax (312) 986-0895, e-mail kittleman @

Symposia, Conferences, Meetings

34th Systematics Symposium at MBG 4-5 October 1996

This year's Systematics Symposium at the Missour Botanical Garden has been organized by George Schatz and Bette Loiselle. The topic is New Tools for Investigating Biodiversity." The symposium will be held on Friday and Saturday October 4th and 5th. Further details will be posted on the Garden's Web Page (http:// as they are received. You will be able to register by e-mail but it will still be necessary for you to mail in your check or credit card information (do not send your credit card information by e-mail).

A symposium notice will also be mailed. If you wish to add your name to the symposium mailing list, send the information to Systematics Symposium, Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299.

The format will follow the traditional one to which many of us have become accustomed. There will be a social mixer on the Friday from 7:30-9:00 p.m. The seven presented papers will be on the Saturday, beginning at 8:30 a.m., with the final paper at 8:00 p.m. after the symposium dinner. For more information, contact P. Mick Richardson, Missouri Botanical Garden (richards @

Mycorrhizal Fungi in Restoration Ecology 22 October 1996

The Chicago Botanic Garden presents the first annual Janet Meakin Poor Research Symposium entitled "The Role of Mycorrhizal Fungi in Restoration Ecology." The conference will be held on Tuesday, October 22, 1996, from 8:30 am to 3:45 pm in the Alsdorf Auditorium. Topics of the symposium include the ways in which mycorrhizal fungi influence diversity in prairie restorations, the role mycorrhizae play in the restoration of soil structure, and the challenges of raising mycorrhizal plants in a nursery.

Fees for the program are $59 for members of the Chicago Horticultural Society and $74 for nonmembers. Registration is by mail (P.O. Box 400, Glencoe, IL 60022), fax or phone, or in person at the Garden's Continuing Education office. Contact the Education Registrar at 847 835-8261 to register or for more information.

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2nd Crop Science Congress 17-23 November 1996

The second International Crop Science Congress (ICSC) is scheduled 17 to 23 Nov. 1996 at the Hotel Ashok, Chanakyapuri, in New Delhi, India. In-creasing population and declining assets of natural re-sources constitute a major challenge to global food security. This concern has led congress organizers to choose the theme: Crop Productivity and Sustainability: Shaping the Future. Three categories of presentations at the congress will be plenary, symposia, and posters. In addition, working groups will deliberate on topics of specific interests for framing policy documents. Popular lectures will also be organized on some evenings. Registration is US$300 by 1 June 1996, $400 thereafter. Accompanying members cost $100 each, as does a student registration without proceedings. For more information contact: Prof. S.K. Sinha, Secretary-General, 2nd ICSC, National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, INDIA, Fax No.: 91-11-5753678, Telephone Nos.: 91-11-5753677 / 5753713.

International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution 26-30 November 1996

An International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution is being organized by the Inter-national Society of Environmental Biologists and the National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India. The conference will include a number of sessions and lectures from 26 to 30 Novemebr, 1996. For further information, please contact Dr. K. J. Ahmad, Organising Secretery ICPEP-96, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow - 226 001 (India). Tel. 91 (0522) 271031-35 ext. 209/221. Fax: 91 (1522) 282881; 282849. E-mail manager@

Eucarpia Tomato 97 19-23 January 1997

The XIII Meeting of the Eucarpia Tomato Working Group will take place in Jerusalem, Israel January 19-23, 1997. The topics of the scientific progam will be fruit quality, resistance to biotic stress, breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses, and new techniques for tomato breeding.

For information, contact the Secretariat at ISAS Seminars, P.O. Box 34001, Jerusalem 91340, Israel, tel. 972-2-6520574, fax 972-2-6520558, e-mail

Temperature Stress in Plants 26-31 January 1997

A Gordon Conference on Temperature Stress in Plants will be held at the Colony Harbortown Hotel, Ventura, California, from January 26-31, 1997. The conference will focus on metabolism at low temperature, temperature sensing and signal transduction, stress proteins, membranes, vernalization, climate change, plant biotechnology and crop production in stressful environments. The organizers are Donald Ort, chair, and Charles Guy, vice chair. For additional information, contact Gordon Re-search Conferences, University of Rhode Island, P.O. Box 984, West Kingston, RI 02892-0984; telephone 401-783-7644, fax 401-783-4011, e-mail

13th Symposium Morphology, Anatomy and Systematics 6-11 April 1997

A symposium will be held in Leuven, Belgium at the University of Leuven from April 6-11, 1997, entitled "13th Symposium Morphology, Anatomy and Systematics." Further information can be obtained from the Symposium Secretariat, Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Botanical Institute, KU Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 92, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium) - Telephone: (**32)16 321545; Fax: (**32)16 321979.

XIII International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry 21-27 September 1997

XIIIth Interntional Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB XIII) "Matter and Energy Fluxes in the Anthropocentric Environment." September 21-27, 1997, Monopoli (Bari), Italy. Contact person: Prof. N. Senesi, Instituto di Chemica Agraria, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 - Bari, Italy. Tel. +39.80.5442853, fax +39.80.5442813, e-mail

Sixth International Mycological Congress 23-28 August 1998

The Sixth International Mycological Congress - IMC 6 is scheduled to take place from August 23-28, 1998 in Jerusalem at the ICC Jerusalem International Convention Center. The Congress Program encompasses a wide array of themes structured of symposia sessions and workshops, daily plenary lectures, social activities, and a special program for accompaning persons. For further information please contact : Congress Secretariat, P.O. Box 50006, Tel Aviv 61500, Israel. Tel: 972 3 5140014, Fax: 972 3 5175674/514007. E-mail: for Compuserve users: ccmail:MYCOL at Kenes; for internet users:

Information on the Sixth International Mycological Congress may be found on: www: index.html

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Book Reviews

In this Issue:


p. 80 Mosses and Liverworts of Rainforest in Tasmania and Southeastern Australia. S.J. Jarman and B.A. Fuhrer (1995) — Cynthia M. Galloway

Conservation Biology:

p. 80 Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests. S.P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero, and J.L. Luteyn, eds. (1995) — David J. Hicks

p. 82 Ironwood: An Ecological and Cultural Keystone of the Sonoran Desert. Gary P. Nabhan and John L. Carr, eds. (1994) — Jerry M. Baskin


p. 83 Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems. George W. Koch and Harold A. Mooney, eds. (1996) — Robert S. Nowak

p. 84 Plant Invasions: General Aspects and Special Problems. P. Pysek, K. Prach, M. Rejmdnek, and M. Wade, eds. (1995) — Christopher G. Eckert

p. 85 Urban Ecology as the Basis of Urban Planning. H. Sukopp, M. Numata, and A. Huber, eds. (1995)—Glenn Guntenspergen


p. 86 8th International Exhibition of Botanical Art & Illustration, James J. White, Autumn M. Farole & Sharon M Tomasic, eds. (1995) — Stan Harpole

p. 86 Preparing Scientific Illustrations. Mary Helen Briscoe (1996) — Stan Harpole


p. 87 Cushion Plants for the Rock Garden. D. Lowe (1995) —Tomasz Wyka

p. 88 Rock Garden Plants of North America: An Anthology from the Bulletin of the North American Rock Garden Society. Jane McGary, ed. (1996)— Rebecca Sherry and Tom asz Wyka

Molecular Biology:

p. 89 Molecular Biology: A Project Approach. Susan J. Karcher (1995) — Cynthia M. Galloway


p. 90 Introductory Mycology, 4th Ed. C. J. Alexopoulous, C. W. Mims, and M. Blackwell (1996) — Jim Farrar


p. 92 Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd ed. Horst Marschner (1995) — Daniel Taub

p. 92 Plant Hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. PJ Davies ed. (1995) — Fred Sack


p. 93 Plants of the Rio Grande Delta. Alfred Richardson (1995) — Allan Nelson

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Mosses and Liverworts of Rainforest in Tasmania and Southeastern Australia. S.J. Jarman and B.A. Fuhrer. 1995. ISBN 0-634-05686-8 (pa-per US$24.95) 134 pp. CSIRO Publications, Victoria Australia. — The aim and intent of this publication is not to provide scientific keys and methods for identification of the mosses and liverworts of Tasmania, but to increase awareness of the diversity and beauty of these organisms. To this end, this publication has served its intent well.

There are fifty species of moss illustrated by sixty-eight color photographs. Seventeen photographs of thallose liverworts illustrate thirteen species and sixty-seven photographs illustrate the fifty-seven species of leafy liverworts presented in this book.

While this is by no means a scientific treatment of the mosses and liverworts, two chapters seek to enlighten the reader to some of the scientific aspects of bryology. Chapter 1 deals with a general introduction to bryophytes and Chapter 4 addresses recognizing bryophytes. In my teaching of bryology and lichenology, I have found that most students are unable to distinguish between mosses, liverworts, ferns, fern allies and lichens until shown examples of each which makes Chap-ter 4 particularly helpful. Although most of the emphasis is given to distinguishing between mosses and liver-worts, there are brief paragraphs dealing with distinguishing between lichens and bryophytes, ferns and bryophytes, filmy ferns and thallose liverworts, and fern allies and bryophytes. Unfortunately, the photographs for this chapter are all in black and white which lessens the aesthetic difference between the organisms.

After the four brief opening chapters, the remainder of this short treatise is divided into three sections dealing with mosses, thallose liverworts and leafy liverworts. The brief descriptions that accompany the photographs in each section are very general and can be used to describe many species so do little to pinpoint the exact species in question.

If one acquires this book with the intent of learning how to distinguish between most species of bryophytes in the geographical areas covered, there is room for disappointment. If, on the other hand, one wishes only to appreciate the beauty and diversity of these often overlooked organisms, one will be pleased. — Cynthia M. Galloway, Department of Biology, Campus Box 158, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, TX 78363.

Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests. S.P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero, and J.L. Luteyn, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-89327-400-3. (cloth, US$85.00 + US$8.15 P/H in the US, US$10.15 p/h for other countries) xiv+702 pp. New York Botanical Garden, Scientific Publications Department, Bronx, NY 10458. — Biologists have expended much effort unraveling the ecological and evolutionary mysteries of tropical rainforests. In recent years this goal has been complemented by increasing emphasis on other tropical habitats. The past few years have seen increased research on dry forests and high-elevation ecosystems, summarized in a wave of publications, such as Hamilton et al. (1995, Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, Springer), Balslev and Luteyn (1992, Peiranw, Academic), Bullock et al. (1995, Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests, Cambridge), and Rundel et al. (1995, Tropical Alpine Environments, Cambridge).

The present volume is the result of a symposium held at the New York Botanical Garden in 1993. The symposium had a strong international flavor; among ca. 200 participants, 16 countries were represented. Of 82 contributors to the published version, 27 have a primary affiliation with a US-based organization, 33 are Latin American, and 19 European (mostly Netherlands and Scandinavia). Every chapter has dual summaries in English and Spanish, and the text of 9 of the 52 chapters is in Spanish, with the others in English.

Unlike most of the publications mentioned in the first paragraph, this volume has a strong geographical focus, covering montane forests ranging from Mexico to Argentina. As might be expected, most contributions deal with Andean forests. There are also chapters that deal with sites in Central America, the Colombian Chocō, and the Guyana region. Despite the term biodiversity in the title, this work deals almost entirely with plants, with only one chapter on animal (bird) distribution patterns.

Physically, this is an impressive volume, weighing in at nearly 1800 grams. The pages are well laid out, and the book is strongly bound, well produced, and nearly free of typos. Each section opens with an illustration taken from a classic work of 19th century South American exploration.

The book is divided into five sections, which cover vegetation history, floristic inventories and ecology, diversity of nonvasculars (fungi, lichens, bryophytes), diversity of vascular plants (e.g. pteridophytes, Rubiaceae, Compositae, palms, aroids, bamboos), human impacts, and conservation.

Although it is virtually impossible to summarize such a large and diverse gathering of authors and topics, a number of themes turned up in several contributions and are worth mentioning. Many chapters emphasize the complexity of plant evolution in the Andean

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region. This complexity is due in large part to the geological history of the region. South America has had dry-land connections to both Gondwanaland and Laurasia since the late Mesozoic, leading to phytogeographic affinities with both northern and southern continents (Taylor, Graham). Further complexity was introduced by the Andean orogeny, which proceeded at different rates in various parts of the range (Taylor). Added to the complexity of the biota and geography are Pleistocene climate changes, which strongly affected elevation zonation (Wijninga, Hooghiemstra and Cleef), producing conditions needed for active speciation. In the modern flora, this complex history is reflected in high diversity and considerable amounts of regional and local endemism among flowering plant groups (e.g. Dezzeo and Huber, Rangel-Ch., Jorgensen et al., Berry et al.). These patterns are also true even for such apparently vagile taxa as birds (Fjeldsa), fungi (Mueller and Halling) and pteridophytes (Moran).

Several chapters document changes in diversity with elevation and latitude. Although species richness of woody plants with diameter >2.5 cm drops with elevation (Gentry, Kappelle and Zamora), a number of other taxa or growth-forms show a "mid-elevation bulge" in diversity. Groups showing the latter pattern include all vascular plants grouped together (Rangel-Ch.); shrubs, epiphytes and herbs (Jorgensen et al.); epiphytic lichens (Sipman); bryophytes (Gradstein, Churchill et al.); and ferns (Moran); as well as some families and genera (many contributors). Latitudinal changes in diversity are also pronounced, with highest richness in the central and northern Andes and declines occurring toward the northern and southern limits of montane forests (Gentry, Grau and Brown).

One important conclusion of the first three sections is that many important details of geological history, ecology and distribution patterns of montane forest organisms remain unknown. For example, al-though Peru's Manu National Park has been the site of many studies in lowland forests, inventory of the extensive upper montane forests of the Park is just beginning (Cano et al.).

The tremendous diversity of Latin American montane ecosystems is threatened with extinction be-fore it has even been studied scientifically. The section on "Plants and humans" documents the significance of native plants to local people (Sorensen and Schjellerup), and points out their possible significance for domestication or crop improvement (Debouck and Libreros Ferla). This section also discusses a variety of human impacts on montane ecosystems, including cutting and grazing (Kok et al.) and extensive clearing for the drug trade, now including opium poppies as well as more-publicized coca (Cavelier and Etter). Conservationists face a dilemma in connection with the drug trade, as replacement of drug crops with food crops of lower economic value would actually lead to increased rates of forest clearing (Henkel).

The last section covers "Conservation and the future." Included are analyses of montane national parks in Colombia (Sanchez-P. and Hernandez-Camacho), Ecuador (Vāsconez) and Argentina (Brown). Although these countries have set aside significant numbers of Andean reserves, problems persist with defense of park borders and with inadequate protection of high-diversity regions. Restoration (Sarmiento) and sustainable forestry are also included (Chaverri and Hernandez).

As with any edited volume, this book has some weaknesses. Individual contributions vary considerably in scope and interest; some might be more appropriate as journal papers. Also, overall integration is weak. The individual chapters do not refer to each other, and only occasionally attempt a broad synthesis. (Webster's chapter introducing the section on inventory and ecology is an exception to this, and will make a useful introduction to many aspects of montane forest biology.) The section introductions help somewhat to integrate the book, but each is only a single page.

Although this book is already quite large, a few topics could have used more extensive coverage, such as Caribbean montane forests, pre-Columbian human impacts, and ecological processes. (These omissions might perhaps be deliberate niche segregation from the Hamilton et al. volume mentioned above, which does cover the first and last of these topics.)

In summary, "Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests" contains chapters on a very broad range of topics. Virtually every botanist working in the tropics will find several chapters of interest. The large Literature Cited sections of several chapters are useful guides to further reading. This book will be a worthwhile purchase for most large libraries. — David J. Hicks, Department of Biology, Manchester College, North Manchester, Indiana 46962


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Ironwood: An Ecological and Cultural Key-stone of the Sonoran Desert. Gary P. Nabhan and John L. Carr, editors. 1994. ISBN 1-881173-07-0 (paper US$12.95) 92 pp. Conservation Inter-national Occasional Paper No. 1. Conservation International, Department of Conservation Biology, 1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036. — Ironwood is a collection of four research papers on the biology, conservation, and cultural ecology of the long-lived (to >1200 years) Sonoran Desert tree, Olneya tesota (ironwood), a monotypic genus of Fabaceae. In the short introduction, G. P. Nabhan and M. J. Plotkin state that Olneya "...serves as a habitat-modifying keystone critical to the structure and function of the Sonoran Desert. Although not endangered as a species ... its rapid depletion and low rates of regeneration have become concerns of many desert ecologists." [Keystone species are those on which community structure, integrity, and unaltered persistence through time are dependent (R. T. Paine. 1969. The American Naturalist 103: 91-93).]

Three of the four research papers are concerned with documenting the keystone role of ironwood in the Sonoran Desert ecosystem. Ironwood acts as a keystone species by creating a microhabitat under its branches that is more suitable for the establishment of many perennial species of the Sonoran Desert than is the macrohabitat. In short, it acts as a "nurse plant" (A. Būrquez and M. de los Angeles Quintana, first paper). Būrquez and de los Angeles Quintana concluded that the major threat to the stability of the ironwood community was not selective cutting or moderate grazing, but "...introduction of buffel grass [Cenchrus ciliaris] that rapidly accumulates dead combustible matter." Burning causes the arborescent desert to be replaced by a dry grassland that is inhospitable to the recruitment of perennials.

In a study near the Sea of Cortez in Sonora, Mexico, J. J. Tewksbury and C. A. Petrovich (second paper) found that species richness and abundance under the ironwood canopy were 36% and 46% higher, respectively, than in the surrounding environment. Plant life forms with greater richness and abundance under the ironwood canopy than in the open were (in decreasing order of abundance) epiphytes, large cacti, vines, large shrubs, small perennials, and medium-sized perennials. They also found that increased abundance and species richness under ironwood canopies were much greater in nonriparian than in riparian habitats.

In the third research paper, G. P. Nabhan and H. Suzan reported that the threatened cactus Peniocereus striatus was associated strongly with ironwood and several other legume "nurse plants," and that cutting the trees (for charcoal production, brick foundries, tourist crafts, vegetation conversion to exotic pasture grasses, and local fuelwood consumption) had negatively impacted the rare cactus. They concluded that ironwood was especially important to the continued existence of P. striatus.

In the fourth and final paper, S. St. Antoine tells us that, in addition to being a keystone species in the Sonoran Desert, ironwood also is "... a cornerstone to the crafts-based economies of the Seri Indians and Mexican communities of Sonora, Mexico." Thus, "For visitors to Sonora, Mexico, ironwood carvings are nearly as prominent a part of the scene as saguaro cacti and taco stands." A significant event in ironwood conservation was the formation of the Mexican-USA Ironwood Alliance. It has designed a conservation strategy for Olneya that includes preservation of the cultural heritage of those people whose crafts-based economy depends heavily on this desert tree. One thing the Alliance has done is to introduce alternative carving materials to the Seri and Mexican carvers. Several of these, including barite, tagua (a tropical palm), tropical hardwoods, and clay, seem to offer some promise for success in lowering the demand for ironwood as a carving material.

Following the research papers is a section entitled "Plant Names List." It includes the Latin and common names of the various species in 11 life form groups associated with ironwood.

I recommend this publication to biologists and conservationists who want to further their knowledge of Sonoran Desert ecology, keystone species, "nurse plants," and/or how to develop a conservation strategy that includes both natural resources and cultural heritage_ Jerry M. Baskin, School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington

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Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems. George W. Koch and Harold A. Mooney, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-12-505295-2 (cloth US$79.95) 443pp. Academic Press, Inc., 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495. — Research concerning the effects of increased atmospheric CO 2 on terrestrial ecosystems has increased greatly over the last decade. A number of factors provide the motivation for this in-creased interest, including the certainty that atmospheric CO2 concentration has and will continue to increase, an almost universal observation of increased leaf photosynthesis and decreased transpiration during experiments, and advances in research technology that have yielded open-top chambers (OTC) and free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE). This book largely achieves its goal to provide a critical synopsis of recent studies. In addition, even though it is not apparent from the title, this book also provides insights into our understanding of system processes at different levels of resolution and on how to model these processes.

The major strength of Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems is that it compiles many years of results and different types of studies into one volume, which is of great convenience to individuals interested in the response of terrestrial ecosystems to increased CO2. Although compilations of results can be dull and dry, the authors for this book were encouraged to synthesize and critically discuss the results. The extent that authors of individual chapters were able to simultaneously compile results and stimulate interest was uneven, but many authors did take the opportunity to speculate on the implications and limitations of the data. I found that the chapter by Curtis et al. linking aboveground and below-ground processes was especially effective at compiling, synthesizing, and stimulating, and the frankness and "reality checks" of authors such as Norby et al., O'Neill and Norby, and Owensby et al. were appreciated.

Another major asset of the book is the last 7 chapters. These chapters are oriented around the question of how CO 2 affects terrestrial systems, but their utility extends well beyond this topic. Two examples are: 1) Johnson and Ball (Chapter 16) examine the CO2 question in the larger context of nitrogen limitations to forests; and 2) the discussion of important model characteristics, model strengths and weaknesses, and different modeling approaches by Amthor and Loomis (Chapter 18) and Reynolds et al. (Chapter 19) are helpful to novice modelers.

This volume has a rather heavy emphasis on carbon sequestration. Clearly, understanding the global carbon cycle and predicting the extent that increased atmospheric CO2 will be partially ameliorated by carbon sequestration is an important issue and worthy of emphasis, but the other benefits of these studies should not be overlooked. For example, the more extensive under-standing of system structure and function that results from simultaneous investigations at different levels of resolution may be a more enduring result of the high CO 2 research than estimates of carbon sequestration.

This book is also "top heavy" - its primary focus is aboveground processes. This focus is reason-able considering that the majority of results concern aboveground processes. Fortunately, almost all of the first 15 chapters, which focus on a particular species or ecosystem, include at least some information on below-ground processes. In addition, Plant and Soil Volume 165, No. 1 (1994), which has been reprinted as a volume edited by Curtis et al. (1995), provides an excellent review of the effects of inc reased CO 2 on belowground processes.

In summary, do not let the title of this book dictate whether it should be on your reading list. The book clearly is useful to those interested in the effects of increased atmospheric CO 2 on terrestrial systems in general and on vegetation in particular . For those with active interests in CO 2 -plant interactions, the book provides ideas for future research. For those who simply want to be aware of the issue, the first 15 chapters summarize many journal articles as well as unpublished research, which saves the reader many hours in the library and at the copy machine. But this book should not be ignored by two other groups of people. First, people interested in crop, forested, salt marsh, grassland, arctic, and alpine systems will appreciate this book. Many authors weave basic knowledge of how terrestrial ecosystems function into their chapters and frequently lament that gaps in that knowledge limit our ability to interpret results from CO2 studies. Second, those interested in modeling will also find the book useful. Many authors tackle the issue of how to extrapolate results from leaf to canopy to community to landscape to global levels, and Chapters 18-21 directly address the issue. — Robert S. Nowak, Department of Environmental and Resource Sciences, University of Nevada Reno

Literature Cited
Curtis, P.S., E.G. O'Neill, J.A. Teeri, D.R. Zak, K.S. Pregitzer (eds.) 1995. Belowground Responses to Rising Atmospheric CO 2: Implications for Plants, Soil Biota, and Ecosystem Processes. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, Volume 60. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 169 pp.


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Plant Invasions: General Aspects and Special Problems. P. Pysek, K. Prach, M. Rejmānek, and M. Wade, eds. 1995. ISBN 90-5103-097-5 (paper US$50.00), 263 pp. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. — Majormovements of plants and animals around the globe have long interested ecologists, biogeographers and evolutionary biologists. These so-called biological invasions may have significant ecological and genetic consequences for the invading species as well as the species making up the communities being invaded. Since many contemporary invasions are facilitated by humans and pose significant threats to natural ecosystems, there is also a strong applied interest in controlling invading species and understanding what human activities lead to biological invasion. In the early 1980's, the wide interest in biological invasion prompted a program initiated by SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) that focused on three main questions: (1) What factors determine whether a species becomes invasive? (2) What factors make certain communities vulnerable to invasion? (3) What management strategies are appropriate to control invading species? One of the legacies of the SCOPE program is a large body of literature on biological invasion, including a dozen major edited volumes plus several single-authored books published in the last decade. While some of these volumes focus on a particular habitats or biogeographic regions, and some vary between descriptive and quantitative, all address the three issues outlined by SCOPE. Plant Invasions is the latest addition to this rich literature. So, where does this book fit in and what is the likely breadth of its appeal?

Plant Invasions consists of 19 chapters summarizing the results of an international workshop held in Kostelec and Cernymilesy, Czech Republic during September 1993, and is intended as a sequel to a previous volume on the invasion of riverside habitats (de Waal et at., 1994, Ecology and management of invasive riverside plants, John Wiley & Sons — see review in PSB 41[1]: 19). Unlike the previous volume, however, this collection of papers is not focused on any particular habitat; and, despite the strong European representation among the 28 authors involved, there is no explicit regional focus. While it is somewhat novel in that the whole volume is dedicated to plant invasions, plants are already well-represented in other edited volumes on biological invasion. Basically, this book is a compendium of largely independent contributions loosely organized into five sections: (1) general aspects of plant invasions; (2) invasive species in plant communities; (3) biology and ecology of invasive plants; (4) control and management of invasive plants; and (5) research in plant invasions: present and future.

The first section of the book contains most of the chapters with any general appeal. Four of the five chapters attempt to identify key characteristics of successful biological invasions. This is a slippery problem, and workers have been largely unsuccessful in predicting what characteristics make a species invasive or a particular habitat vulnerable to invasion (see Lodge 1993, Trends Ecol. Evol. 8: 133–137). Two of the chapters in this section make significant contributions to this issue. Rejmānek's multivariate analysis of invasive and non-invasive pines reveals a suite of correlated characters (including seed mass, juvenile period and time between large seed crops) that appears to distinguish invasive species from their noninvasive counter-parts in pines as well as other gymnosperms and woody angiosperms. However, the specter of unpredictability quickly resurfaces in Kowarik's analysis of lag-times between the introduction and spread of alien species in Germany between 1787–1990. Exploiting the extensive temporal record of woody plant invasions available for the German flora, he shows that the time interval between the introduction and spread of an alien plant is usually lengthy (average = 174 years), can vary widely (<50 to >350 years), and is unrelated to the ultimate "success" of an invasion. Kowarick also uses these data to update Williamson's "10:10 rule". The updated rule states that while 10% (probably fewer) of introduced species begin to spread, about only 2% become established in their adventive range, and only about half of these successfully invade natural vegetation. The existence of long time lags and the unpredictability of invasion success has important implications for assessing the long-term ecological risks associated with the cultivation and escape of transgenic plants.

The next two chapters in this general section compare features of alien and native species in the Czech Republic (Pysek et al.) and Denmark (Andersen). I found these chapters less convincing. It is not clear to me what these native–alien comparisons can reveal in terms of what makes a successful invader. It would seem that this question could be more directly addressed by comparing invasive species to noninvasive members of the source floras. Even so, this endeavor, as other workers have concluded, is likely to be stymied by historical contingency. The comparative approach taken in these chapters also seems somewhat outdated in that associations between species' traits and invasiveness are sought by using individual species as statistically independent data points. With considerable controversy raging in other areas of plant ecology around the issue of control-ling for the correlations among species imposed by phylogenetic history (e.g., Westoby et al., 1995, J. Ecol. 83: 531–534; Harvey et al., 1995, J. Ecol. 83: 535–536), I was surprised by the complete absence of "phylogenetically-correct" methodology where it clearly warranted consideration.

The second section of the book contains three chapters dealing with the impact of invading species in

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plant communities, the strongest of which is another contribution by Kowarick examining the relationship between urbanization and the invasion of alien species in and around Berlin. The other two chapters in this section (post-fire invasion of a South American woodland-steppe ecotone by Gobbi et al., and the impact of agriculture on a Mediterranean river flora by Ferreira & Moreira) are presented as case studies, but are of little general significance. Both are based on fairly limited field studies, and the authors do not convincingly identify any general conclusions from their work.

The third section of the book is a mixed bag of modest case studies dealing with the autecology of various invasive plants. Three chapters deal with invasive Fallopia species. One shows that F. japonica can potentially spread from rooting stem fragments. Another presents an unsuccessful preliminary screen for RAPD markers of hybridization between male-sterile F. japonica and male-fertile F. sachalinensis in Britain. And the third contains cursory observations concerning the distribution of F. sachalinensis in Europe and its native range in the Far East. The remaining three chapters are similar in scope. Of particular interest to me was a chapter by Edwards et al. on the invasion history and ecology of the aggressive wetland plant Lythrum salicaria. Unfortunately, aside from reiterating some distributional data taken directly from a widely read review article (Thompson, Stuckey & Thompson, 1987, Spread, impact and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Research Report), the chapter presents what the authors optimistically call a "natural experiment" which simply shows that the growth of L. salicaria varies among widely dispersed sites that differ in soil fertility and water level. The following section on control and management is also limited in both depth and breadth. Two chapters deal with relatively unsuccessful applications of herbicides to Crassula helmsii and Fallopia japonica, and a third presents a loose narrative on the spread and control of Rhododendron ponticum and other invading plants in Snowdonia National Park in Wales. The book ends with two overviewish chapters: an analysis of temporal trends in both the numbers and focus of published studies on plant invasion by Pysek, followed by a rather scattered summing-up by Beerling.

In all, I was disappointed by Plant Invasions. While individual chapters might be of interest to people working on specific aspects of biological invasion, the book is probably of little general interest to plant ecologists, conservation biologists or students interested in learning about biological invasions. The book simply satisfies its stated goal in recording the proceedings of an international workshop on plant invasion. — Christopher G. Eckert, Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Urban Ecology as the Basis of Urban Planning. H. Sukopp, M. Numata, and A. Huber, eds. 1995. ISBN 90-5103-096-7 (paper US$47.00) 218pp. Kugler Publications, PO Box 1498, New York NY 10009-9998. — "The Urban Ecosystem: A holistic Approach" (Stearns and Montag 1974) was published 22 years ago. This was one of the first attempts in the United States to transmit an understanding of the ecological relationships between people and their urban environment to those decision makers responsible for urban planning. Readers of the current volume might think that little has been accomplished since then. "Ur-ban Ecology..." is largely a collection of talks presented at the 1990 INTECOL Congress. The chapters are primarily descriptive plant studies of settled areas in central Europe, the Mediterranean, and Asia. Two additional chapters provide an introduction to the theory and methodology used in analyzing urban vegetation and two chapters cover the topic of urban wildlife. Many of the chapters are reviews of already published studies or progress reports of ongoing projects. The latter could have been updated since there appeared to be a five year delay in the publication of this symposium.

An American audience might find the phytosociological analyses of urban vegetation disappointing. Most of the chapters are descriptive, lack a function-al assessment of urban vegetation, and do not utilize the available multivariate techniques in an attempt to under-stand the relationship between vegetation and environmental and cultural forces. However, these descriptive studies have generated some general principles: urban plant communities usually have a simplified structure, some remnants of natural communities remain, exotic and weedy plant species typical of early successional habitats are abundant on disturbed urban sites, and plant communities representing active landscaping such as street tree plantings and plant communities grown on residential lots are an important component of the urban ecosystem. This book does not emphasize the important role of urban vegetation in the urban ecosystem. Urban vegetation is a major asset to the city and can serve as a building block for the urban environmental infrastructure. Urban vegetation provides many functions including: amelioration of urban climates, a foundation for urban fauna, enhances the economic value of properties, and ameliorates hydrologic changes caused by urbanization. Thus the value of urban vegetation and its recognition in the environmental planning process argues for a better understanding of how it is affected by anthropogenic activities and can be managed to optimize its environmental, ecological, and economic functions.

Peter Pysek presents a very balanced critique of urban phytosociological studies and the directions subsequent studies should follow. Vandruff et al. pro-vide a good review of the functions of urban wildlife which can form a basis for urban wildlife management.

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However, close to one-third of the book is devoted to one chapter ( a translation of H. Kehl's dissertation) which utilizes a phytosociological approach to analyze the vegetation near a Turkish agricultural settlement (population 600). While this chapter presents an interesting analysis of the vegetation, seed bank, and anthropogenic factors influencing the vegetation, it hardly qualifies as an urban study. In contrast, Rieley and Page utilize a habitat mapping approach to analyze the urban vegetation of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This represents a critical first step in the development and implementation of a green space management plan which recognizes the importance of vegetation in providing amenities for the urban population.

The reader will find this book difficult to read. The English in many of the chapters is poor despite the apparent acknowledgments of help from others. Some chapters are missing references and numerous typos also contribute to the uneven nature of the book. This book does not forge a new synthesis nor provides any systematic understanding of urban vegetation or fauna which can be used as the basis for urban planning and management. It does, however, provide the American audience an entry to the rather large literature on urban ecology in Europe and Japan pioneered by the editors, their students, and colleagues. — Glenn Guntenspergen, National Biological Service, Prairie Science Center, Jamestown, North Dakota

Stearns, F.W. and T. Montag (eds.). 1974. The urban ecosystem: A holistic approach. Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Inc. Stroudsburg, PA. 217pp.


8th International Exhibition of Botanical Art & Illustration, James J. White, Autumn M. Farole & Sharon M Tomasic, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-913196-63-0 (paper US$22.00) 178pp. Hunt Institute of Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890 — This is a catalog of the exhibition that was held from November 1995 to February 1996 at the Hunt Institute. With over 30,000 botanical illustrations as well as illustrated books, this research division of Carnegie Mellon University has one of the most comprehensive collections of 20th century botanical art and illustrations. This catalog presents 105 illustrations reproduced in black and white, by 87 artists from around the world. The works are all outstanding and cover the spectrum of botanical art, from still lifes to scientific specimen plates. I was disappointed that the paintings were not reproduced in color, but this would have significantly in-creased the price. It was very interesting for me to see examples of illustration from other countries including India, Spain, Japan, and Great Britain. For those interested in botanical art, it would be worth a visit to Pittsburgh to see the 9th exhibition. — Stan Harpole, University of Washington, Seattle WA

Preparing Scientific Illustrations. Mary Helen Briscoe 1996. ISBN 0-387-94581-4 (paper US$25.95) 204pp. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386 — This book is in essence an introduction to graphic design for scientists. I found the title slightly misleading; I expected a book on illustration in the strict sense: for example, rendering in pen & ink. The subtitle, a guide to better posters, presentations, and publications, along with the title of the first section in the introduction, learning to communicate visually, are more accurate descriptions of the topic. After reading the book and thinking back on presentations I have given or attended, I saw the need for this book. Scientists are often very visually oriented but may have little training in effective visual communication. Briscoe's purpose is to improve communication of scientific information; she accomplishes it by contrasting good and bad illustrations.

The author discusses the use of different types of illustrations in the first part of the book. These include drawings, photographs, tables, graphs, and molecular graphics. There is also an overview of the software available to produce them. But Briscoe emphasizes that no software will automatically produce good illustrations; careful planning and skill are required of the user.

The three primary media the scientist communicates through are the journal, the presentation, and the

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poster. Each of these has special design considerations. The journal publication will have certain format restrictions; the number of columns will dictate the size and reduction of the illustration. Slides are often used for presentations, and to be effective they must be kept simple. We have all had to struggle to read slides that had too much information printed too small. For effective posters, Briscoe suggests we look to advertising. Like an ad, the poster must capture the readers attention and hold it long enough for the message to be conveyed. Finally, the book covers practical aspects of preparing illustrations such as hiring an illustrator or preparing one's own illustrations by hand or with a computer.

This book is only about 200 pages and covers a lot of material. I wished some of the subjects, such as preparing drawings and figures, were presented in more depth. The author suggests taking illustrations from books but does not mention copyright issues. Surprisingly, there is an illustration missing (p.28). Overall the book is successful; the many good examples and excel-lent organization make this a valuable introduction to visual communication in science. — Stan Harpole, University of Washington, Seattle WA


Cushion Plants for the Rock Garden. D. Lowe 1995. ISBN 0-88192-345-1(cloth US$29.95),160 pp. Timber Press, Inc., 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204—Of all varieties of horticulturalists, rock gardeners are probably the most likely to also entertain interest in the natural history of the plants they grow. The book by Duncan Lowe, a British collector of alpine cushion plants is a result of his keen observations of plants in the wild as well as experimentation in his garden and greenhouse, with input from other growers of these generally difficult plants. Cushion Plants for the Rock Garden opens with a brief, 8 page overview of cushion plant morphology and ecology, focusing on the advantages of this growth form in the alpine environment. Regrettably, author's decision to "keep complex sciences at a respectful distance", though it makes easier reading for the amateur, also resultes in several inaccuracies and misinterpretations. For example, the adaptive role of the cushion growth form is explained solely from the mechanical stress tolerance viewpoint, ignoring possible benefits for bet-ter thermal balance, nutrient conservation and herbivore resistance. The extent of alpine root systems are certainly underestimated while the availability of pollinators in the alpine is exaggerated. Admittedly, cushions are among the plant forms most poorly studied eco-physiologically, because of their small size and the inaccessibility of their natural habitats, but even the sparse literature available is entirely ignored here. The scientific thread continues to be weak throughout the book, culminating in the notorious omission of family names from descriptions of even very exotic genera (referred to as `groups').

Duncan Lowe takes a very narrow view of what qualifies as a cushion plant, with the resulting exclusion of a number of taxa that deviate somewhat from the `essential cushion' archetype (like some species of Astragalus, Arenaria, Minuartia, Artemisia and others). The book surveys some 27 genera of cushion plants, but only those possessing horticultural appeal and available in trade are listed (the ungrowable Eritrichium nanum, however, is also mentioned). For each species covered, the geographic region of origin is given and morphological characteristics are briefly furnished, but this is frequently limited to flower color and in no case is it sufficient for identification of an unknown plant. No hardiness data are given; a likely drawback for readers outside of Great Britain. The main portion of each species entry is devoted to cultivation tips and evaluation of the difficulty level that the plant presents to the grower. Here, in my opinion, lies the greatest strength of this book, for the author speaks from his many years of practice and shares the best of his experience. He gives solid advice, its quality is attested to by superb photographs of immaculate specimens of cushion plants in full bloom. One only wishes that all genera,

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if not species. were illustrated and that captions al-ways contained the name of the taxon.

For a botanist, the most interesting section of the book deals with species that are new to cultivation, frequently from remote corners of the globe: New Zealand, Tasmania or the Andes. How many of us have seen a cushion-forming violet ( V. atropurpu rea) or heard about Wernaria or Leucogenes? For these, more illustrations and better descriptions would be appropriate.

The remainder of the book treats the various general aspects of cushion plant cultivation: cultivation techniques, propagation and pests and diseases. The list of growing techniques: pot culture in greenhouses, frames and plunge beds, troughs, screes, raised beds and artificial cliffs is by no means exhaustive and does not include the ever more popular sand beds, which enable growers in humid parts of North America to successfully raise a range of cushion plants, as well as the Czechoslovakian method of crevice planting. Similarly, no mention is made of cultivation under artificial lights. Advice on transplanting, watering and fertilization is provided, but what is clearly missing is effective advice on dealing with plant dormancy. In my experience, the extended growing period at lower altitudes, where most gardening takes place, is a major cause of poor alpine plant survival. In the chapter on propagation, both propagation from cuttings and from seeds are described, but the requirements of different species are not given, an especially egregious omission with respect to seed germination. Luckily, a number of publications are available that cover this area. Finally, "Pests, diseases and other troubles" are listed, and the good, old recommendation: "best to avoid" is given when appropriate.

The book has four appendices, which contain addresses of a few nurseries, seed sources and rock garden societies, some tips on buying plants, and a short list of Further Reading, with such classics as Foster's Rock Gardening and Ingwersen's Alpines conspicuously absent.

Like all books by Timber Press, Cushion Plants is a fine piece of editorial work. Typographical errors are few. The color plates and ink drawings are of highest quality and they alone would make the book worth adding to any horticultural or botanical library. In spite of its incompleteness, resulting largely from the person-al character of this book, it will be of interest to all dedicated alpine plant growers who enjoy growing beautiful but challenging plants, and particularly the specialized collectors who want to grow show-quality plants (Duncan Lowe is a show judge). I also hope that academic botanists will use the lore from this book in growing cushions for research purposes, to expand our severely limited knowledge of the biology of these plants. — Tomasz Wyka, University of Missouri, Columbia

Rock Garden Plants of North America: An Anthology from the Bulletin of the North American Rock Garden Society. Jane McGary, ed., 1996. ISBN 0-88192-343-5 (cloth US$49.95) 459 pp. Timber Press, Inc., 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204 — Another lovingly-edited book for alpine plant and rock garden aficionados, Rock Garden Plants of North America is a 50-year retrospective of 58 articles selected from the pages of the Bulletin of the North American Rock Garden Society by its readers. The chapters provide diverse and comprehensive coverage of conspicuously flowering taxa, appropriate for rock gardens, that grow in some of the most difficult habitats in the United States. At times the selection is happily eclectic, including bulbs, ferns, and plants from the swamps and bogs of the eastern Pine Barrens. The editors took a liberal view of what constitutes a rock garden plant. Some plants described here would qualify for a perennial border rather than rock garden, particularly those from such unlikely places as Kansas, the Carolinas, and the plains of Texas.

Most chapters deal with a single genus or group of plants and often read like travel logs with beautiful and detailed descriptions of trips to the field discussing the distribution and ecology of the group. The worst chapters are little more than a recitation of plant names with very brief descriptions; others provide more detailed descriptions (Trillium, Physaria) or references (Synthyris) that would satisfy the scientist (considering that this book was written for amateurs and has a horticultural bias in species selection.) The best chapters include notes on the cultivation of plants in the rock garden (e.g. Arbutus, Calochortus, Epigea, Lewisia, even the impossible Eritrichium) and/or accounts of the geology and natural history of the area (e.g. Uncompahgre Plateau, Pine Barrens of New Jersey). I found the five chapters by B. Leroy Davidson particularly full of detail. His chapter "The Great Basin Phenomenon" includes lovely evocations of the landscape as well.

A few chapters include interesting historical accounts of plant discoveries (Shortia, Astragalus), or changes in nomenclature (Dodecatheon). Although many references to conservation issues (and descriptions of plant digging) have been edited out, we can still see how our current ethic has developed over the years. Even in a 1949 article on Epigea by Ida A. Thomas there is warning against reckless collecting.

Throughout the book, nomenclature was care-fully updated by Paul Jones, but an index of genera and families or some reference to the families of less well-known genera would still be useful.

Although different sections of the book cover the entire country (even Kansas and Texas!), the central Rocky Mountains and Colorado are given short shrift considering the rich array of potential rock garden plants

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found there. American plants are obviously underexploited horticulturally.

Most of the writers are professional botanists and horticulturalists, others are highly experienced gardeners and a few are professionals in other fields (chemistry, medicine). Some are quite famous (Claude Barr, Panayoti Kelaidis, M. Lincoln Foster, Paul Maslin).

The book makes pleasant arm chair reading, useful for planning one's own field trips to floristically rich sites. The 105 gorgeous plates will be enough to entice some people to purchase this book. The writing style tends to be friendly and conversational, charming and slightly dated, as is common in the genteel arena of botanical writing. More than one closing sentence begins "We leave reluctantly ..."

We recommend this book to horticulturists and amateur botanists; scientists may be disappointed unless they also share these writers' enthusiasm for alpine and rock garden plants. — Rebecca Sherry and Tomasz Wyka, University of Missouri, Columbia


Molecular Biology: A Project Approach. Susan J. Karcher 1995. ISBN 0-12-397720-7 (paper US$34.95) Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495. — This manual is intended for undergraduate juniors, seniors and Master's students having some understanding of genetics and molecular biology. It is also intended to stand alone as a laboratory manuaUtext, thus cutting the cost to students by doing away with an additional text and dispensing with the flipping between text and lab manual.

The topics presented are divided into six chapters covering transposon mutagenesis, recombinant DNA cloning, southern blot analysis, plant genomic southern blotting, RNA purification and northern blot analysis, and polymerase chain reaction. The early chapters start with a detailed introduction of the subject being covered, giving what appears, at first, to be much more detail than what may be necessary for the beginning student but, in the detail required by more advanced students to be able to explore techniques in depth. The latter chapters, on the other hand, lack this detail, leaving the reader with many unanswered questions.

The introductions to each chapter are followed by a list of experiments, or protocols, that take the student through a stepwise progression of the intricacies of molecular technique to a logical conclusion. At the closing of each chapter, there is a detailed bibliography divided into sections ranging from historical to complex technical aspects of molecular biology.Ten appendices and a glossary conclude this text. The appendices cover such topics as lists of suppliers, sources of strains, antibiotic information, and techniques for handling bacterial strains. All are handy for the development of a course utilizing this manual.

The first chapter, dealing with transposon mutagenesis, is somewhat disjointed due to the fact that following an eight page introduction to transposons one is suddenly presented with a mixture of subjects including common laboratory rules, guidelines for laboratory notebooks, guidelines for laboratory reports, sterile technique and making media. These topics could probably have best been treated in an introductory chapter preceding the chapter on transposon mutagenesis. The following chapters do not suffer from the addition of seemingly unrelated topics found in the first chapter. Also, a note in this chapter suggests using foil in a microwave to minimize evaporation when preparing agarose gels. This practice is highly dependent on the microwave and the amount of foil used. I would not want a lab of students to be experimenting with this technique when parafilm, wax paper or a loose fitting plastic lid could serve the same purpose. A second note suggests that toothpicks used for picking colonies could be collected, autoclaved and reused. This seems to be a questionable practice

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since toothpicks are the least expense in this technique.

The second chapter, dealing with recombinant DNA cloning, is, by far, the most extensive treatment of a subject in this book. Topics such as cloning vectors and restriction endonucleases are discussed in great detail, leaving nothing to the imagination. In each of the first three chapters the student is given a reason for each step in a procedure which is often omitted from many texts. It has been my experience in teaching that if a student knows why they are doing something there is a greater probability they will remember what they have learned.

The third, and second most detailed chapter in this book, deals with southern blot analysis. Once again an extensive introduction to the techniques in this chap-ter make this book worth having just because of the background material provided. Both radioactive and nonradioactive labeling techniques are discussed and protocols presented for each. This is particular helpful when radioactive labeling is not an option in schools lacking access to radioactivity. Also, it is often not desirable to try to do radiolabelling with a large class of inexperienced undergraduates. One omission in standard technique in this chapter is the lack of mention of the importance of, or methods of, marking membranes in plaque or colony lifts for southern analysis. Without this simple step, the experimenter is unable to see the full purpose and intent of the southern blot.

The last three chapters are extremely brief when compared to the first three and Chapter 4 may best have been included as a protocol in Chapter 3. While previous chapters gave several methods for the technique discussed, only one method is presented for genomic DNA isolation. Chapter 5, dealing with RNA purification, is also rather short on detail and lacks the depth of the first three chapters. The final chapter dealing with PCR technology once again brief, although the introductory material is a little more extensive than that of the previous two chapters. Although the basics of the PCR technique are presented along with one protocol, many uses of PCR are not addressed. If PCR technology is intended to be a major portion of the class covered using this manual, supplemental material will need to be provided.

What started out appearing to be an excellent laboratory manual turned out to be an ordinary manual that lacked in the end. Based on the first half of this manual, the intent as stated in the preface, has been met but, based on the second half it falls short. However, the first three chapters still make this a very worthwhile publication to possess. The protocols in the last three chapters are well written but, supplemental information will need to be provided to beginning students to in-crease their understanding of the techniques. — Cynthia M. Galloway, Department of Biology, Campus Box 158, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, TX 78363

Introductory Mycology, 4th Ed. C. J. Alexopoulous, C. W. Mims, and M. Blackwell 1996. ISBN 0-471-52229-5 (cloth US$84.95) John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York NY 10158 — The first edition of Introductory Mycology was published in 1952, the second edition in 1962, the third in 1979, and now the fourth in 1996. Given the high quality of the latest edition, the remarkable longevity of this text is in no danger. The fourth edition is an extensive revision of the third edition. Several topics have been added to this edition including, fungal endophytes, the increase in fungal diseases in humans with compromised immune systems, fossil fungi, and phylogenetic trees. Recent advances in our knowledge of the fungi are seamlessly incorporated into the entire text.

The first three chapters ("Introduction to Fungi and Their Significance to Humans," "Characteristics of Fungi," and "Fungal Systematics") are essentially an introduction to the study of the fungi. Chapter 3, "Fungal Systematics," is new in the fourth edition and is a general description of the goals and methods of systematics. It contains an excellent discussion of taxonomic characters and the various approaches to building and evaluating phylogenetic trees. Chapter 3 also includes a discussion of fossil fungi, an interesting topic that I have not seen covered in other texts. The next 19 chapters cover the Kingdom Fungi (Phyla Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota). The deuteromycota are discussed in chapter 8, which is the second of nine chapters devoted to the Ascomycota. Further discussion of the deuteromycota appears in conjunction with their sexual states. In the third edition the Deuteromycotina were treated as a subdivision and discussed in the second to last chapter. Integrating them into the Ascomycota and removing their official taxon status makes the treatment of the deuteromycota parallel the treatment of the asexual states in the Zygomycota and Oomycota. The lichens have been moved from the exile of the last chapter in the third edition and are discussed in the chapter on Discomycetes in the current edition. The last 7 chapters cover the fungus-like organisms. The Phyla Oomycota, Hyphochytriomycota, and Labryinthulomycota are placed in the Kingdom Stramenopila while the Phyla Plasmodiophoromycota, Dictyosteliomycota, Acrasiomycota, and Myxomycota are not placed in a Kingdom. In the previous edition these groups were treated before the true fungi, the Chytridiomycetes and Hyphochytridiomycetes were placed in the same subdivision, and the Acrasiomycetes contained the dictyosteliads. In the fourth edition the Chytridiomycota are included in the Kingdom Fungi, the Hyphochytridiomycota are placed in the Stramenopila, and the Dictyosteliomycota are separated from the Acrasiomycota. Discussing the Fungi first and the fungus-like organisms later is a major reorganization compared to the third edition and in my estimation a stroke of genius. Under this system the Fungi are clearly distinguished from the

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fungus-like organisms, an evolutionary lineage from slime molds to basidiomycetes is not implied by the organization of the chapters, and the chapter on fungal characteristics (Chapter 2) only deals with the Kingdom Fungi.

The fourth edition, like the previous edition, follows a taxonomic outline and I agree with the authors that "the taxonomic approach provides a framework with predictive value" (page iii). This does not mean that discussions of biology, physiology, anatomy, ecology, and relations to human affairs are lacking. Discussion of these important topics is integrated into each of the taxonomic groups. For readers interested in specific topics which span many taxonomic groups the subject index is helpful. The coverage of the taxonomy is comprehensive. Little known or seldom isolated groups, which are often not covered in an introductory mycology text, are covered here. The comprehensive taxonomic coverage andexpanded discussion of the biology of each group makes this edition 236 pages longer than the third edition. However, this is not to suggest that the fourth edition is too long for an undergraduate mycology course. There is always some tension between writing a standard reference for the field and writing a text for an introductory course. I believe that this book can be used for both purposes. I plan to use this book in my undergraduate mycology course and will assign the first three chapters and the chapters and chapter sections which introduce the groups and their biology. I will assign specific taxonomic readings only for the groups we examine in the lab. In addition, I personally will use the book as a standard reference, especially to the groups outside of my expertise.

The text is well written, well organized, and the prose is easy to read. New terms are in bold (along with their etymology) and all taxa names are in italics (following the suggestion of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature). As a reader I found the latter feature particularly helpful. The authors' affection for and intimate first-hand knowledge of the fungi is obvious. These feelings become contagious and I often found myself thinking up new research projects and teaching lab exercises while reading. Each chapter also has an up-to-date reference list. Classic and new works are cited and provide a good starting point for access to the enormous literature on the fungi. As in previous editions, there is a glossary of terms, an author index, and a subject index. The subject index is useful for examining topics, such as arthropods associations, mycorrhizae, or plant pathogens, which range across the taxonomic groups.

The text is remarkably free of typos and errors. My only complaint is that many of the photographs (both light and electron level) are poorly printed. It is a shame that the lack of quality photographic reproduction (apparently the domain of the publisher) subtracts from an otherwise excellent book. Hopefully the quality of photographic reproduction can be improved in later printings. — Jim Farrar, Department of Botany, Weber State University, Ogden UT 84405-2504


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Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd ed. Horst Marschner 1995. ISBN 0-12-473543-6 (pa-per US$49.95) ISBN 0-12-473542-8 (cloth US$120.00) 912 pp. Academic Press, 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 7DX —The second edition of this text updates a work that has served since its publication in 1986 as a valuable general reference to the field of mineral nutrition. In the second edition, as in the first, the emphasis is on the physiology of mineral nutrition, rather than on soil processes, or the biogeochemistry of mineral nutrients. About one third of the book consists of sections on the functions of individual elements. Other topics receiving particularly extensive coverage are the role of nutrition in determining plant growth and yield, and the uptake and transport of mineral nutrients.

The emphasis throughout is on reporting empirical findings about mineral nutrition. There is relatively little attention paid to theoretical investigations and modeling in the areas covered by the book. For example, there is a section on plant shoot:root weight ratios, but no discussion of the extensive efforts that have been made to model the response of shoot:root ratios to environmental factors. This is also not a work on methods, and there is little discussion of techniques of research in plant nutrition..

The second edition closely resembles the first in format as well as content. The arrangement of the chapters is identical in the two editions, and for all but two chapters, the subchapter arrangement is nearly identical as well. Many of the changes that have been made are the sort of improvements one would hope to see in a second edition. Many of the figures have been redrawn and are now larger and clearer. Revised wording has cleared up an occasional difficult passage and improved the flow of the writing, and the new table of contents is a big improvement over the old. In general, however, the content has been little changed. While the new edition does incorporate recent research, most of the information is unchanged and many passages are identical between the two editions. This does not necessarily reflect neglect on the part of the author so much as the simple fact that many things that were true in 1986 are still true.

The most extensive changes to the second edition are in chapters fourteen and fifteen, on root growth and rhizosphere processes respectively. These chapters have been entirely rewritten and expanded, and contain much information not found in the first edition. The sections on root exudates and mycorrhizal relation-ships have been particularly expanded.

Within its emphasis on reporting empirical results, the book provides a very broad and comprehensive treatment. As with any work that tries to summarize a large and varied field, it is possible to find omissions, but they are few. I was able to find at least some mention of nearly every topic I looked for. The bibliography is impressive for its sheer volume, running to 180 pages, and providing entree into the literature on almost any topic in the field of plant nutrition.

Given the importance of soil derived elements for all aspects of plant development and function and the role of nutrient availability in structuring ecological communities, nearly any plant scientist will find this a useful reference work to have on their bookshelf. Readers who already own the first edition may find that the changes made for the second edition do not justify its purchase, particularly if their interests are tangential to the topic of plant nutrition and they have only occasional recourse to a reference such as this. — Daniel Taub, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794


Plant Hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. PJ Davies ed. 1995. ISBN 0-792-32985-6 (paper US$59.50) Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, 101 Philip Drive, Norwell MA 02061 — This book is intended as a text for a graduate course on plant hormones as well as a reference for plant scientists. In general it achieves both these objectives by including both intelligent reviews as well as down and dirty details (the chemical structures of 89 gibberellins are carefully illustrated).

There are thirty five chapters grouped into sections on synthesis and metabolism, mechanisms, analysis, molecular aspects, and growth and development. An additional section entitled "other hormonal compounds" discusses polyamines, jasmonates, salicylic acid and brassinolides. The wisdom of including such as discussion is demonstrated by the recent dramatic findings on the critical role of brassinosteroids in light-regulated elongation (det mutants).

The chapters have been extensively revised since the first edition (1987) and several new chapters have been added, especially to incorporate recent molecular data. Each chapter provides an integrated review of the subject, and each topic was chosen by the single editor. This helps the book achieve a level of coordination sometimes missing from edited volumes.

A pair of introductory chapters by Prof. Davies provide a useful overview of hormone structures and functions, of the applicability of the term "hormone" to plants, and of the relative importance of concentration and sensitivity to the magnitude of the response to the hormone.

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A major strength of this book is that it puts molecular findings firmly in an historical and phenomenological context. For example, there are discussions on the roles of auxin in gene expression and in tropisms, as well as on auxin transport, auxin resistant mutants, and on applied uses of synthetic growth regulators. This breadth increases the exposure of the student to the full range of topics in the field.

However, this breadth and the expanded for-mat of the second edition also create discontinuities that sometimes make it harder to piece together the full story. For example, many of the exciting recent ethylene mutants of Arabidopsis are discussed in a chapter ("Hormone mutants and plant development") that is separated from one devoted to ethylene.

Overall this is a strong contribution to graduate education and it will provide many of us with updated overviews for both teaching and for research perspectives. The quality of writing and editing is high and the chapters are balanced. Controversies are addressed and used to stimulate interest. Several chapters address common, key issues from different perspectives. Even at 833 pages, this tome is no substitute for delving into the primary literature, but it is a guide and stimulus to do so. — Fred Sack, Department of Plant Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210


Plants of the Rio Grande Delta. Alfred Richard-son. 1995. ISBN 0-292-77070-7 (paper, US$24.95) 332 pages, 94 plates with 224 photographs. University of Texas Press, P. O. Box 7819, Austin, TX 7871 3-781 9 — This is a revision of Alfred Richard-son's previous work, Plants of Southernmost Texas, published in 1990. It covers the native flora of the southern tip of Texas including Cameron, Willacy, and Hidalgo counties. This region is floristically rich and the field guide lists over 800 species and varieties of plants excluding the grasses. Because it covers only a subset of the approximately 5400 plants described in the state flora (Correll and Johnson, The Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas), it includes a simpler set of keys. The guide also keeps the use of botanical terminology ("botanese" according to Richardson) at a minimum and provides an excellent glossary. The glossary includes all the botanical terminology used in the manual with line drawings illustrating many terms. The glossary includes terms like corona that is defined as an appendage or appendages that occur between the corolla and the stamens. Here, Richardson incorporates a bit of regional humor by pointing out that the term is not a reference to a popular Mexican beer (although many botanists who have labored in this sweltering region are undoubtedly familiar with the latter usage of the term). The parallel keys are user-friendly and are forwarded by an explanation of how keys are used in identification. I personally have had no difficulty in using the field guide and it has been adopted by botany departments in a number of classes that require identification of plants in southern-most Texas. The simpler keys, lack of "botanese", glossary of necessary terminology, and illustrations of difficult terminology make the guide useable by amateur botanists interested in the South Texas flora.

Augmenting its use as a simpler set of keys to the region is 224 high quality color photographs arranged in 94 plates. These provide photographs to confirm field identification of over 180 South Texas plant species. The photographs of many of the shrubs have insets with the flowers magnified so that the viewer can appreciate the plant as a whole and observe the reproductive portions that are often needed for identification. Because many of the photographs emphasize the habitats in which the individual species occur, they provide an appreciation for the diversity and beauty of this unique and rapidly disappearing ecosystem in South Texas.

A few suggestions that could improve an al-ready excellent field guide include the following. The introduction should contain a map indicating the location of the three counties emphasized in the flora. The generic names used with the species keys need to be placed in italics as well as boldface type. Future editions should make more use of enlarged insets within plant photographs because of their effectiveness in both presentation and space efficiency.

Both amateur and professional botanists will benefit by using this excellent field guide to a floristically diverse region of Texas. As a professional botanist that teaches plant identification in the region, I highly recommend Plants of the Rio Grande Delta to anyone interested in southernmost Texas. — Allan Nelson, Biology, Texas A&M University-Kingsville


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Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send E-MAIL, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly!—Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review ** = book reviewed in this issue


Numerical Exploration of Community Patterns: A Guide to the Use of MULVA-5 Wildi, Otto, and Ldszlō Orlōci. 1996. ISBN 90-5103-114-9 (paper US$41.00) 171pp. SPB Academic Publishing, P.O. Box 11188, 1001 GD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Algal Ecology: Freshwater Benthic Ecosystems Stevenson, R. Jan, Max L. Bothwell, and Rex L. Lowe, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-12-668450-2 (cloth US$84.95) 753pp. Academic Press, Inc., 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego CA 92101

The Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops Rissler, Jane, and Margaret Mellon 1996. ISBN 0-262-68085-8 (paper US$16.95) 160 pp. The MIT Press, 55 Hayward St., Cambridge MA 02142

Economic Botany

Lost Crops of Africa, Voulme I: Grains Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council. 1996. ISBN 0-309-04990-3 (paper US$24.95) 408 pp. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418


Hitherto Long, Albert G. 1996. ISBN 1-85821-350-9
(cloth £15.50) 278 pp. The Pentland Press, 1
Hutton Close, South Church, Bishop Auckland,
Durham DL14 6XB Great Britain Genetics

Genetic Data Analysis II Bruce S. Weir 1996. ISBN 0-87893-902-4 (paper US$34.95) 376 pp., Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts 01375


An All Consuming Passion: Origins, Modernity, and the Australian Life of Georgiana Molloy Lines, William J. 1996. ISBN 0-520-20422-0 (pa-per US$44.95) 398 pp. University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley CA 94720.

Notable Women in the Life Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary Shearer, Benjamin F., and Barbara S. Shearer, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-313-29302-3 (cloth US$49.95) 456 pp. Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport CT 06881.


The Gardener's Guide to Growing Hostas Grenfell, Diana 1996. ISBN 0-88192-355-9 (cloth US$29.95) 160 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

Water Gardening: Water Lilies and Lotuses Slocum, Perry D., and Peter Robinson, with Frances Perry. 1996. ISBN 0-88192-335-4 (cloth US$59.95) 434 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

Molecular Biology

Plant Gene Isolation: Principles and Practive Foster, Gary D., and David Twell, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-471-95539-6 (paper US$52.95) 426pp. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 605 Third Ave., New York NY 10158

Biological Membranes: A Molecular Perspective from Computation and Experiment Merz, Jr., Kenneth M., and Benoit, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-8176-3827-X (cloth US$99.50) 593pp. Birkhauser Boston,P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195

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Membranes: Specialized Functions in Plants Smallwood, M., J.P. Knox, and D.J. Bowles, eds. 1996. ISBN 1-85996-200-9 (cloth US$180.00) 608 pp. Bios Scientific Publishers, Ltd., P.O. Box 605, Herndon VA 22070

Molecular Aspects of Pathogenicity and Resistance: Requirement for Signal Transduction Mills, Dallice, Hitoshi Kunoh, Noel T. Keen, and Shigeyuki Mayama, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-89054-215-5 (cloth US$49.00) 312 pp. APS Press, 2230 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul MN 55121


Fungal Biology: Understanding the Fungal Lifestyle Jennings, D.H., and G. Lysek 1995. ISBN 1-85996-150-9 (paper US$33.95) 176 pp. Bios Scientific Publishers, Ltd., P.O. Box 605, Herndon VA 22070


Light as an Energy Source and Information Carrier in Plant Physiology Jennings, Robert C., Giuseppe Zucchelli, Francesco Ghetti, and Giuliano Colombetti, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-306-45383-5 (cloth US$95.00) 313 pp. Plenum Publishing Co., 233 Spring St., New York NY 10013


Embryogenesis: the Generation of a Plant Wang, T.L. and A. Cuming, eds. 1996. ISBN 1-85996-065-0 (cloth US$120.00) 240 pp. Bios Scientific Publishers, Ltd., P.O. Box 605, Herndon VA 22070


Agnes Chase's First Book of Grasses: The Structure of Grasses Explained for Beginners, 4th ed. Clark, Lynn G., and Richard W. Pohl. 1996. ISBN 1-56098-656-5 (paper US$16.95) 127pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, 470 L' Enfant Plaza, Washington, D.C. 20560

Plants of Southern Interior British Columbia Parish, Roberta, Ray Coupe, and Dennis Lloyd, eds. 1996. ISBN 1-55105-057-9 (paper US$19.95) 462pp. Lone Pine Publishing, 16149 Redmond Way, #180, Redmond WA 98052

Flora Malesiana, Series I - Spermatophyta, Vol. 12, part 2: Caesalpiniaceae, Geitonoplesiaceae, Hernandiaceae, Lowiaceae Hou, Ding, K. Larsen, S.S. Larsen, J.E. Laferriēre, B.E.E. Duyfjes, and K. Larsen. 1996. ISBN 90-71236-29-3 (paper Dfl. 100.00) 376 pp. Rijksherbariuml Hortus Botanicus, P.O. Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.


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