Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1997 v43 No 2 SummerActions

Volume 43, Number 2: Summer 1997
ISSN 0032-0919

Editor: Joe Leverich
Department of Biology, Saint Louis University
3507 Laclede Ave., Saint Louis MO 63103-2010
Telephone: (314) 977-3903
Fax: (314) 977-3658
e-mail: leverich @ slu . edu


News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

48th Annual AIBS Meeting in Montreal, August 3-7,1997

The Botanical Society of America will meet along with a number of other societies at the 48th Annual AIBS meeting this August in Montreal. This year's meeting will be hosted by the Canadian Botanical Association. The theme of the 48th Annual Meeting is "Biodiversity: Global Issues."

In addition to the full agenda of the BSA Annual Meeting, there are a number of workshops, field trips, social events, and sightseeing excursions scheduled.

Students wishing to reduce the cost of attending this meeting can apply to work as an audio-visual projectionist or registration clerk/"go-fer" and receive a registration fee refund for 12 hours service.

Several deadlines remain for the upcoming meeting this August in Montreal:

13 June   Conference Pre-Registration Deadline
13 June   Workshop form due
13 June   Field trip form due.
13 June   Social event and Tours form due. Projectionist/clerk/go-fer application due.
2 July   Campus housing reservation due. Hotel reservations deadline.
11 July   Registration cancellations due in writing at AIBS. No refunds after this date.

For registration information, contact AIBS

Meetings Department, 1313 Dolley Madison Blvd., Suite 402, McLean VA 22101; Telephone (703) 790-1745; Fax (703) 790-2672; Email

The website for the 48th Annual Meeting of AIBS is

Vacancies on Botanical Society Committees: BSA wants you!

Vacancies exist on several BSA committees for the 1997-1998 year, and interested members are sought to help in the functioning and growth of our Society. If you are interested in becoming a member of one of these committees, please contact Nancy Dengler, Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A1 (phone 4l6/978-3536; FAX 416/978-5878; e-mail This is a way to become actively involved in the Society and to help shape its future.

Committees with vacancies include: Archives and History, Committee on Committees, Conservation, Darbaker Prize, Education, Election, Esau Award, Financial Advisory, Membership and Appraisal, Merit Awards, Moseley Awar Committees.

Committee responsibilities are described under Article X of the By-Laws in the Membership Directory and Handbook.

- Nancy Dengler, President-Elect

ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of the Botanical Society of America, Inc. Periodical postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

Phone/Fax: 614/292-3519      email:

Editorial Committee for Volume 43
James D. Mauseth (1997)
Department of Botany
University of Texas
Austin, TX 78713
Allison A. Snow (1998)
Department of Plant Biology
Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210
Nickolas M. Waser (1999)
Department of Biology
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521
P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166
Vicki A. Funk (2001)
Department of Botany
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560


Looking for Wood


I am interested in obtaining roughly an half kilogram sample of a wood known as "Coatl" or "Tlapal ezpatli" which is a tall shrub like a pear tree with wood which is of a white color.

The wood was described by Nicolas Monardes (1493-1588) as "Palo para los males de los rinones y de urina" and is known in Latin as "Lignum nephriticum." In solution, this wood demonstrates fluorescence and an azure blue color or an yellow color depending upon orientation to light rays.

Perhaps you could suggest to me a source for a sample of this wood. Your assistance will be appreciated.

- Ralph C. Panian 1801 Colton Blvd. Billings MT 59102

Wanted: New Homes for Herbarium Specimens of Vascular Plants


The chairman of the Department of Biology at Carleton University has decreed that no courses or research using in-house specimens of vascular plants in the department's herbarium, CCO (or of vertebrates in the Carleton University Museum of Zoology) will be offered in the foreseeable future, and that virtually all specimens must be discarded, unless new homes can be found for them. As this outrageous, short-sighted and professionally irresponsible plan to consign many valuable teaching, reference, historical, and research specimens, some irreplaceable, to a garbage dump is wasteful and abhorrent to me, I am trying to locate institutions where they will be maintained in perpetuity, used, and appreciated.

Accordingly, I am directing this notice to herbaria, museums, and university departments of botany or biology housing scientists interested in teaching and research on structural adaptations of whole organisms, biodiversity, systematics, biogeography, and related subjects based on well-prepared and documented herbarium/museum specimens.

Our herbarium was established in 1952 and curated by E.A.O. Tumau, W.I. Illman, and I.L. Bayly, all now retired. CCO contains over 32,000 catalogued and many uncatalogued vascular plants primarily from North America, but there are also many specimens from the West Indies, north and south Africa, Japan, Australia, and elsewhere. For instance, there are many specimens of pitcher-plants (Nepenthes) from southeast Asia.

To obtain more information about the collection and/or to express tentative interest in accepting all or subsets of the plants, please contact Dr. Donald A. Smith, Department of Biology, Carleton University, I 1 25 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K I S 5B6. Telephone (613) 520-2600 ext. 3879; fax (613) 520-4497; or leave a message for me with Adam Baker at

-Donald A. Smith
Associate Professor (retired)
Carleton University

News from Donetsk Botanical Gardens


I am Serghej A. Bychkov, have been a member of the Botanical Society of America since 1996. 1 am a graduate student of the Donetsk Botanical Gardens of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences. In 1995-96 my scientific supervisor Dr.lvan I. Korshikov published two books:

Korshikov I.I. et. al. Interaction of plants with the technogenically polluted environment. - Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1995, 191 pp.

Korshikov I.I. Adaptation of plants to the conditions of technogenically polluted environment. - Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1996, 238 pp.

Both books are in Russian with the English summary and Contents. Unfortunately, these books are still unknown to western scientists. Will you be so kind to give us a helping hand in allocation of an information on these books in the Plant Science Bulletin. I think this information will be very interesting for the botanists, and other scientists and enable them to acquaint with plant ecology and genetic investigations in Ukraine. The summary and contents of thise books are enclosed [see editor's note below]. If you are interested in the books mentioned I'll send them with pleasure to you. Thank you very much in advance. Looking forward to hear from you. Best wishes.

- Serghej A. Bychkov
The Donetsk Botanical Gardens
Ukr. Nat. Acad. Sciences
Illych's Avenue, 110 Donetsk, 340059, UKRAINE

[Editors note: I will be happy to forward via e-mail the summaries and contents of Dr. Korshikov's books to any readers sending a request with their e-mail addresses to]

Announcements, Nominations and Applications

In Memoriam

Kenneth V. Thimann

The Botanical Society has been notified that Kenneth V. Thimann, a member of BSA since 1957, passed away January 15, 1997.

Positions Available

Plant Anatomist / Morphologist / Paleobotanist
Brigham Young University

We seek to fill a tenure track Assistant, Associate, or Full Professor position. Candidates should have a strong background in plant anatomy/vascular plant morphology and/or paleobotany. Applicants should hold a Ph.D. Degree, preferably with postdoctoral experience, have a commitment to excellence in teaching and training of undergraduate and graduate students, and have an active research program. Teaching responsibilities would include teaching undergraduate courses in introductory botany, possibly general biology, plant anatomy, vascular plant morphology, and graduate courses in the applicant's specialty of botany. The position will become available September 1, 1998. Review will begin November 1, 1997. Request information from W. M. Hess, Chair, Search Committee, Department of Botany and Range Science, 129 WIDB, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (e-mail: or 801 378-2451)

Brigham Young University, an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer, does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, age, national origin, veteran status or against qualified individuals with disabilities. All faculty are required to abide by the standards of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Preference is given to members of the sponsoring church.

Symposia, Conferences and Meetings

94th International Conference
American Society for Horticultural Science
23-26 July 1997

The American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) will hold its Annual International Conference in Salt Lake City from 23-26 July 1997. The extensive technical program and exhibition will be held at the new Salt Palace Convention Center. ASHS-97 will provide numerous educational, networking and career placement opportunities for attendees. For more information on the meeting schedule and registration, contact ASHS headquarters by telephone: (703) 836-4606; or by fax- (703) 836-2024; or by internet:

Environmental Stewardship Workshop
24-26 July 1997

"A wide variety of people are entrusted with the crucial mission of teaching our youth about trees and the environment," says Mimi Wickless, Education Director for The National Arbor Day Foundation. "We designed our How To Teach Youth About Trees and Environmental Stewardship Workshop to bring together those individuals who have the opportunity to educate youth, regardless of whether they do their teaching in classrooms, parks, nature centers, museums or scout meetings."

Participants will receive a variety of top-notch, kid-tested environmental education materials and learn how to adapt them to meet their specific needs. The How to Teach Youth about Trees and Environmental Stewardship Workshop will be held July 24-26, 1997 at Arbor day Farm's Lied Conference Center in Nebraska City. The stream and woodlands at Arbor Day Farm make a perfect laboratory for this type of workshop.

"This promises to be an intense, exciting experience for participants," Wickless says. "In just three days, we plan to give to give them a lot of material that they can put to immediate use." For more information, please contact The National Arbor Day Foundation at (402) 474-5655.

American Society of Plant Physiologists and Canadian Society of Plant Physiologists Annual Meeting
2-4 August 1997

The Joint Annual Meetings of the American Society of Plant Physiologists (ASPP), and the Canadian Society of Plant Physiologists will be held August 2 through August 4, 1997 in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participating in the meeting will be the Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists and the Australian Society of Plant Physiologists, lnc. For more information and to register, please contact Sharon Mulheron, American Society of Plant Physiologists, 15501 Monona Drive, Rockville, MD 20855; phone: (301)251-0560; fax: (301) 297-2996; e-mail:

Advances in Plant Molecular Systematics
13-15 August 1997

This three-day meeting ofthe Systematics Association at the University of Glasgow, U.K. will explain recent developments in the rapidly expanding field of plant molecular systematics. A broad spectrum of the taxonomic hierarchy will be included, ranging from infraspecific variation and population differentiation to high level phylogeny and developmental genetics. Particular attention will be given to the applicability Of different approaches at different taxonomic levels, and the meeting will reflect the importance of the contribution of molecular population genetics and phylogeny reconstruction to the understanding of evolutionary processes and patterns among plants.

Speakers are J. Davis, R. Olmstead, W. Hahn, J. Doyle, V. Albert (USA), S. Barrett (Canada), WPowell, R. Ennos, C. Ferris, R. Gomall, K. Wolff, R. Abbott, C. Stace, P. Hollingsworth, S. Harris, T. Pennington, F. Bakker, R. Bateman, C. Morton, M. Chase, T. Hedderson, Q. Cronk (UK).

Further information can be found at or obtained from Pete Hollingsworth, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G 1 2 8QQ, U.K. Fax: + 44 (0)141 330 5971; e-mail

International Symposium on Plant Biomechanics
7-12 September 1997

The Centre for Biomimetics at the University of Reading is hosting an International Symposium from 7 to 12 September 1997 on Plant Biomechanics. This interdisciplinary forum will cover research and applications between biology, material and engineering sciences for a better understanding of mechanical properties of plants, especially stressing their relevance to agricultural, horticultural, sylvicultural and industrial applications. The conference will be of interest to academic and industrial scientists, educationalists, research students and all those involved in anatomy, morphology, biochemistry, biophysics, biometrics, botany, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, paleobotany, physiology, solid and structural mechanics, material science or soil mechanics; and those interested in both fundamental and applied aspects of plant biomechanics relevant to agriculture, engineering, forestry, food, etc. 'Mere will be lectures by invited speakers, both oral and poster sessions, and round table discussions. A call for papers has been issued and interested parties are invited to register as soon as possible. For more details, or to register, contact Mrs. Sally Pellow at the Centre on (01 18) 931 8923, email, or write to her at 1, Earley Gate, Reading RG6 6AT. Registration documentation will be sent out in March 1997 with details of conference fees.

XIII International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry
21-27 September 1997

XIIlth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEBXIII) "Matter and Energy Fluxes in the Anthropocentric Environment." September 21-27, 1997, Monopoli (Bari), Italy. Contact person: Prof. N. Senesi, Instituto di Chemica Agraria, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 - Bari, Italy. Tel. +39.80.5442853, fax +39.80.5442813, e-mail

Brassica 1997
23-27 September 1997

The ISHS Symposium on Brassicas and the Tenth Crucifer Genetics Workshop are scheduled 23-27 September 1997 at Rennes, France. Brassica 1997 is sponsored by the International Society for Horticultural Science, the Crucifer Genetics Cooperative, Institut National de la Recherche Agrononiique, and Ecole Nationale Sup6rieure Agronomique de Rennes. For information, contact Secretariat Brassica 1997, ISHS Symposium on Brassicas/Tenth Crucifer Genetics Workshop, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Rennes, Dr. Grégoirenomas, Science du Végétal, 65 Rue de Saint Brieuc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex, FRANCE, Telephone (33) 99 28 54 76, Telefax (33) 99 28 54 80, e-mail

IOS Inter-Congress
25-29 September 1997

The 7th Inter-Congress of the International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS) will be held at The Huntington Botanical Garden, San Marino, CA on 25-29 September 1997. It will be held in conjunction with the 14th Huntington Succulent Symposium. For further, information, contact Dr. E.F. Anderson, IOS Secretary, Desert Botanical Garden, 1201 N. Galvin Parkway, Phoenix, AZ 85008. Telephone: (602)941-1225, fax: (602) 481-8124; e-mail:

Plant Evolution and Domestication
26-27 September 1997

Indiana University will hold a weekend symposium in honor of Dr. Charles Heiser's prominent contributions to Botany during his 50 years at IU. The symposium is entitled "Plant Evolution and Domestication," and will take place Friday evening, September 26 and all day Saturday, September 27. Speakers include Greg Anderson, John Doebley, Jeff Doyle, Don Levin, Barbara Pickersgill, Charles Rick, Loren Rieseberg, Doug Soltis, and Herb Wagner. Registration fees are $75.00 for regular participants and $25.00 for students. For further information contact Angi Bailey or Jennifer Jones, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 474056801. Phone: (812) 855-6705, email:

Pollen and Spores: Morphology and Biology
6-9 July 1998

This is the fourth in an occasional series of palynological conferences organized by the Linnean Society Palynology Specialist Group (LSPSG) in collaboration with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Natural History Museum, London. The previous conferences were: The Evolutionary Significance of the Exine (1974); Pollen and Spores: Form and Function (1985) and Pollen and Spores: Patterns of Diversification (1990). The conference is timed to coincide with the retirement from Kew of Keith Ferguson, founder and first Secretary of the LSPSG (1974-1998). There will be a mixture of invited and contributed papers and posters on the following topics: Pollen development; Anther and tapeturn; Pollen-pollinator interactions; Pollen-stigma interactions; pollen morphology in systematics and evolution; Ultrastructure (fossil and living groups); Pre-Cretaceous palynology; Cretaceous palynology; Tertiary palynology; Quaternary palynology; Pollen and archaeology; and Preparation and techniques. The proposed registration free will be around 130 sterling with reduced rates for students. Registration forms will be included with the second circular. For more information, contact Lisa von Schlippe, Conference Administrator, Royal BotanicGardens,Kew,Richmond,Surrey,TW9 3AB, fax 44-0181-332-5176, e-mail:

Sixth International Mycological Congress
23-28 August 1998

The Sixth International Mycological Congress - IMC 6 is scheduled to take place from August 23-28, 1998 in Jerusalem at the ICC Jerusalem International Convention Center. The Congress Program encompasses a wide array of themes structured of symposia sessions and workshops, daily plenary lectures, social activities, and a special program for accompaning persons. For further information please contact: Congress Secretariat, P.O. Box 50006, Tel Aviv 61500, Israel. Tel: 972 3 5140014, Fax: 972 3 5175674/514007. E-mail: for Compuserve users: ccmail:MYCOL at Kenes; for Internet users: Information on the Sixth International Mycological Congress may be found on: the WWW at:

Book Reviews

Book Review: Conservation Biology

Restoring Diversity: Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants. Donald A. Falk, Constance J. Millar, and Margaret Olwell, eds. 1996. ISBN 1-55963-296-8 (cloth US$39.95) 1-55963-297-6 (paper US$27.50) Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington DC 20009 - What a useful volume this is! It reviews a large amount of relevant scientific work, sets that research in the context of public policy and concern, and provides examples of the way that political and biological constraints and imperatives result in the shaping of specific experiments and recovery plans.

There has not been a comprehensive view of the field of plant reintroductions since Falk and Holsinger 1991. That volume marked a crystallization of the research and policy agendas for plant conservation in this country, and since that time there has been increasing activity on many fronts. This volume's articles provide an invaluable compilation of references to the field, as well as careful reporting and discussion of the works drawn from.

The book has four parts: [I] The Environmental and Policy Context for reintroduction; [2] the Biology of Rare Plant Reintroduction; [3] Reintroduction in a Mitigation Context [4] Case Studies. In each of the first three parts, there is a FOCUS article providing a case study illuminating the issues of that part. Case studies include reintroduction of rare plants in Hawaii, a reintroduction program for Pinus torreyana, and several other projects in various habitats from bogs to deserts.

Part 1, The, Environmental and Policy Context for reintroduction, focuses primarily on what is known about the causes of plant rarity, and on the climate and landscape alterations currently affecting species' distribution and abundance, including global warming, habitat destruction, and habitat fragmentation. Chapter 4, on The Regulatory and Policy Context, summarizes the relevant policies of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Endangered Species Act.

Part 2, The Biology of Rare Plant Reintroduction, is a very rich survey of the relevant conservation science. Unlike the articles in collections like Falk and Holsinger, or Fiedler & Jain, the chapters work from a unified perspective, discussing the relevant demographic, genetic, and logistical considerations from a very "applied" point of view. Thus, each of these elements in plant rarity and in reintroduction success is discussed as it specifically touches on Defining Success (Pavlik, Ch. 6), Selecting Reintroduction Sites (Fiedler and Lavin, Ch 7), Designing populations (Guerrant Ch 7), Lessons from Ecological Theory: dispersal, establishment, and population structure (Primack, Ch. 8) and Monitoring (Sutter, Ch 9). In thinking about my own experimental work, I found Gueffant's article on Designing Populations both a resource and a challenge, because his treatment explores the implications for a reintroduction design of life-history characteristics, the species' autecology, and the relevance of specific horticultural techniques under various conditions. Guerrant and Primack each provide useful new dimensions in their reviews of their subjects, Guerrant by creating a dialogue between the empirical biological considerations that he centers on, and the power of models to provide quantitative conjecture and possible generalizations which can promote both further research and foster generalizations in the midstof arapid accumulation of data. Primack draws from a wide range of literature, including animal reintroductions, which provide a contrast group of cases which raise useful questions, at least by analogy, for plant reintroductions: what are the comparative values of gathered vs. propagated material for reintroductions? How closely should (can!) reintroductions mimic natural colonization and dispersal events?

Part 3 of the book discusses reintroductions as part of mitigation efforts. Here, the articles show, both from the point of view of policy and of implementation, the complex interactions that arise in the partnerships of science, government, and business. The alliances are usually uneasy and as the extended discussion of mitigation efforts in California shows (Chapter 13, Howland "Translocation as a Mitigation Strategy: Lessons from California), all the scientific insight so far accumulated gets filtered, deflected, and occasionally employed in such mitigations. Despite the drumbeat of consensus that has gathered in the past decade about the need for careful quantitative design and monitoring of mitigation plans, both to improve success and to provide more knowledge about the reintroduction process.

Part Four, Case Studies, gives seven brief profiles of reintroduction projects, including information about the conservation status and biology of each species, the design of the reintroduction, criteria for success, policy considerations, and at least initial results. These are then followed by a concluding chapter, Part V, Guidelines for developing a rare plant reintroduction plan, which puts t e se ence and experience presented by the rest of the book into a concise, action-oriented form.

I can hardly fault the book on any score; lingering dissatisfactions come from the early state of the field. So many questions remain open that only time and lots of experience can answer: how strong are our generalizations about the biology of rare plants? What are the relative values of in situ protection of extant populations versus reintroduction or other propagation of rare species? How do we incorporate the best new science, say, in population genetics or demography, into plant conservation, when the science itself is so new as to be quite speculative (a case in point being the need - or not - to consider metapopulation structure in a reintroduction plan)? This volume, taken together with the previous survey by Falk and Holsinger, provides an invaluable reference and also portrayal of the state of the art; I look forward to the next installment, a few years down the road. - Brian Drayton, Dept. of Biology, Boston University, and TERC, Cambridge MA

Literature Cited

Falk, D. and K. Holsinger. 1991. Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press, New York
Fiedler, P. and S. Jain. 1992. Conservation Biology. New York: Chapman-Hall.

Book Reviews: Ecological

Plant Response to Air Pollution. Mohammad Yunus and Muhammad Iqbal, eds. 1996. ISBN 0471-96061-6 (cloth US$89.95) 545pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York NY 10158-0012. - Having co-edited a 556 page book some years ago, I well appreciate the level of effort that has gone into this treatise on plant response to air pollution. I also appreciate what the authors have accomplished because I conduct impact analyses on the effects of air pollutants emitted from coal-fired power plants, biomass facilities, and hazardous waste incinerators, on crop plants and natural vegetation. Such analyses are dependent on available literature. This book consists of 20 contributed chapters treating various aspects of air pollutants on plants and communities. A 21 page subject index, a 29 page author index, and three color plates complete the volume. Typos and related errors are few, demonstrating a painstaking job of editing by the authors and publisher. Although the authors are based in India, they have obtained contributions from researchers in seven other countries including the U.S., Canada, England, and four in Europe. Global authorship is important because air pollution knows no boundaries and similar problems occur in many different countries.

The title is vague, perhaps intentionally. You cannot, for example, find what is known about the effects of air pollution on specific agricultural crops, horticultural plants, or plant communities. Rather, the chapters are oriented toward rigorous discussions of a particular effector group of effects on various plant species and cultivars. Twelve chapters provide a conclusion, a generalization, or a final considerations section that serves as a summary. However, the value of these varies considerably. I believe the authors should have insisted that all contributors provide a well-organized summary. Most of the contributors acknowledge the limits of their data and lament the paucity of studies that have actually been done. The first chapter (avoid holding your breath while reading this!), "Global status of air pollution: An overview," helps orient the reader by providing a useful overview on the basic components of pollution in our atmosphere (sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matter - the Los Angeles basin has the highest levels in the U.S. - lead, carbon monoxide, acid deposition, ozone, methane, etc.). These atmospheric pollutants, singly and in combination, are discussed in the remaining chapters. Chapter topics include atmospheric chemistry and crop growth; soil and weather effects on source-sink interactions; atmospheric CO2 and its effect on terrestrial vegetation; elevated CO2 and air pollutants in wintertime; stomatal behavior of plants exposed to air pollution; resistance mechanisms in plants; phenolic compounds in defense against air pollution; biochemical basis for toxicity of ozone; plant response to atmospheric sulfur; root physiology and air pollution; wood development and air pollution; seed growth and air pollution; forest growth and air pollution; and diagnosis of forest decline; as well as others.

The last chapter provides a useful four-page list on potential areas of research. I suspect the authors had to cut this chapter short as their list could undoubtedly be expanded 10-fold (Chapter 17 ends with its own "needed research" list). Perhaps one of the most important contributions of this book is not so much to cite potential cause and effect scenarios but to elucidate countless potential research stratagems.

Although an enormous amount of information is presented in each chapter, the book assumes a certain understanding of basic principles of plant response to air pollution. The in-depth treatments may prove overwhelming for those new to the field of air pollution and plants. A less rigorous approach to basic principles is found in plant stress from air pollution" (Treshow and Anderson, 1989). However, "Plant Response" is highly recommended for those who need facts, data, and primary observations.

For many years air pollution research focused on trying to eliminate variables and concentrated instead on a single pollutant. Although these types of studies are quite important in demonstrating cause and effect relationships, they do not mimic real-world, ambient, atmospheric conditions in which air pollutants are continuously interacting with native, crop, and forest plant communities. Although air pollutant interactions, which can produce synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects in plants, are briefly mentioned in a few chapters (e.g., pp 136, 138, and 241), 1 was disappointed that this book did not include an entire chapter on this topic because of the importance of understanding how pollutant interactions can affect plant response. In Chapter 2, Krupta states that "greater emphasis should be directed to experiments conducted in open, ambient environments so as to increase our confidence in the results we obtain." Such research needs to be done but this is complex stuff! I couldn't help but reflect back on Gleick's (1987), discussion of the "Butterfly Effect," the impossibility of predicting weather for more than a few days, and the nonlinearity, and hence extreme complexity of most dynamic systems observed on earth. The botanists and atmospheric scientists who study air pollution and plants certainly have their work cut out. - R. John Little, Sycamore Environmental Consultants, Inc., Sacramento, CA

Literature Cited

Gleick, J. (I987). Chaos. Making a new science. Penguin Books, NY.
Treshow, M. and F. K. Anderson. (1989). Plant stress from air pollution. John Wiley & Sons, NY.

Plants of Desert Dunes. A. Danin. 1996. ISBN 3-540-59260-1 (cloth US$99.00) 177 pp. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 - This slim volume provides a pleasant introduction to the plants that grow on desert dunes. In most books on the flora of and regions it is the succulents that steal the stage. This book, which deals solely with habitats associated with unconsolidated sand, focuses on plants adapted to survive the rigors of an inherently unstable substrate. Physical processes associated with dune formation and structure and the interaction between wind movement of sand and the growth habits and dispersal mechanisms of plants forms the introduction to the book. We learn the various ways that sand particles can be transported and how their accumulation around vegetation results in the formation of nebkas. The central portion of the book is devoted to "plant case histories and ecomorphological types" - specifically, "species requiring sand accumulation," "species resistant to deep sand cover or removal,"

"species actively resistant to sand deflation," etc. Within each of these subsections, particular attention is given to how the growth and development of individual species allows them to survive their particular microhabitat. I was particularly intrigued by the species that require sand accumulation. The growth of these perennial grasses is actually stimulated becoming covered in sand, typically resulting in the production of nodal active roots.

Discussion of how microbiotic crusts develop on sands were a welcome addition. 'Me final portion of the book compares plants of desert dunes with those of coastal dunes. I enjoyed the very international coverage of dune habitats and species and will be sure to pack this book on my next trip to the Eureka Valley in California or hopefully someday on a trip to either the Namib or the Negev deserts. Because individual species are discussed in detail, it will be a valuable addition to any local flora. Finally, this volume is well illustrated - both with photographs and diagrams. I learned a lot reading it and it has greatly enhanced my appreciation of the rigors and the ingenuity of the plants that grow on desert dunes.N.M. Holbrook, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University

Atlas of Nevada Conifers: A Phytogeographic Reference. David Alan Chariet. 1996. ISBN 087417-265-9 (paper US$35.00) 320 pp. University of Nevada Press, Reno NV 89557. - The title of this book is an accurate description of its contents: its core is a series of maps, i.e. an atlas; it considers only conifers found within the State of Nevada; and it is an excellent reference for plant distribution. The author, David Charlet, has carefully and systematically examined the literature and various herbaria for records of conifers within Nevada, then field-checked many of these. In addition, Charlet has spent numerous weeks exploring undocumented areas of the state, which has resulted in geographic range extensions for many of the 22 species of conifers found in  Nevada. Charlet then compiled his and previous records of each conifers presence into 2 reference materials: a distribution map for each species and a series of data tables that summarize collection information and observations for each species by mountain range.

As with many reference books, the Atlas does not provide lively reading material: most of the book consists of maps and tables of data. The Introduction and a short, 1-2 page vignette on each species are the major sections of prose. The vignettes provide a nice summary on each species distribution in and around the state. Although the vignettes also provide selected information about a plants ecology, this type of information is limited in the book, and Charlet refers readers to appropriate texts that provide more details on ecology, natural history, and taxonomy of conifers.

The overall organization of the book is appropriate. Data are organized logically by species, which in turn are nested within genus, then within family. For each species, Charlet typically provides, in order, the short summary vignette, a distribution map, then tables of data. Many of the species also have detailed line drawings of foliage and cones by Bridget Keimel. However, several organizational details are irritations that make this reference book unnecessarily difficult to use. First, the numerical codes for each mountain range that are shown on the index map on page 2 are not explained until pages 307-315. Second, it is difficult to cross reference between the distribution map and data tables for each species: the distribution maps for individual species do not have mountain range designations, whereas the data tables are organized by mountain range. To cross reference between the data tables and maps, a reader would have to memorize the location of 314 mountain ranges, or constantly flip between the index map on page 2 and the numeric codes on pages 307-315. Even someone, like ourselves, who is familiar with some of the mountain ranges in Nevada will find it difficult to track information without flipping back and forth among the distribution map, index map, and appendix. Third, to make this reference guide more complete, line drawings of all the species would have been useful, and it would be nice to have these sketches show a single needle or needle bunch, a needle cross section, and a seed in addition to the general foliage and cone drawings.

The importance of the Atlas to most readers will be its meticulous, comprehensive data set. Because the book lacks a comprehensive interpretation of the data in a plant geography context, its utility to a general reader will be very limited. None-the-less, this compilation of data is useful to scientists interested in where a particular conifer grows, both by elevation and by latitude-longitude. For example, the Atlas has been a useful tool for our research on the modem and paleo-distributions of plants in the Great Basin. - Robert S. and Cheryl L. Nowak, Department of Environmental and Resource Sciences, University of Nevada, and Intermountain Research Laboratory, US Forest Service.

Book Review: Ethnobotany

Peyote: The Divine Cactus. E. F. Anderson 1996. ISBN 0-8165-1654-5 (paper US$19.95, cloth US$50.00) 272pp. University of Arizona Press, 1230 N. Park Avenue, Suite 102, Tucson AZ 85719. - This book represents the second edition of a book first published in 1980. It introduces the reader to the extraordinary and fascinating world of peyote (Lophophora williamsii), and the several aspects that have been investigated with this controversial and mysterious plant by scientists, historians and anthropologists. For some peyote may be only a drug, but for Native Americans the significance and power of peyote is imperative to their ability to communicate with their spirits, to assure tribal welfare, to heal, and to alleviate hunger and fatigue, among other attributes. As a whole, this second edition is informative as the first one, and it makes an adequate update on the state of peyote's natural history. The text is easy to read and understand, but it is written for an audience with basic knowledge of plant science and chemistry. The main changes in this new edition are of the editorial type, e.g., stylistic, presentation of text, and slight modifications of some figures. New historical, medical and pharmacological information is included altogether with conservation, regulations, and legal aspects pertaining the collection and uses of this plant.

Peyote: The Divine Cactus is organized into nine chapters and three appendices, which provide data, from the sociocultural to scientific to federal laws issues. In addition, the book contains a long and important list of bibliographic references concerning past and current aspects of the taxonomy, systematics, pharmacology, and chemistry of peyote which can be used as an additional source for the avid reader and researcher. Some of the chapters are illustrated with fair quality black and white photographs, maps and drawings. The prose and writing style is clear, and typographical errors are rare.

The initial two chapters introduce peyote in Mexico and the United States respectively. From the botanical view point, these two chapters provide valuable historical information regarding early uses of drug plants with medical properties by the Aztec civilization. The narration on the use of this plant by Coras, Huichols, Tepehuanos, and Tarahumaras (peyote-using groups of Native Americans in Mexico for whom peyote was, and still is, a significant element in their social and religious life) is fascinating. In general, the author discusses the likely origins of peyotism, the widespread use of this plant and its ancient relationship for over 2000 years with New World humans.

Chapters three and four are exciting and mystical; they are related to the ceremonies and user's experience, and contain explicit data about the cultural and ceremonial rites which Native Americans have maintained over the years. Literally, the author transports the reader to the peyote's cultural and social realm and to a metaphysical world which few people have attempted to enter. He explores this world in an objective manner to investigate and clarify some of its enigmas. The description of ceremonial passages and user's experiences are also captivating and takes the reader on an imaginary trip to those mysterious and isolated lands where Native Americans venerate peyote as the plant of life and use it as an essential element in their rituals. This ancient tradition still persists in isolated tribes of Mexico, where Native Americans take advantage of peyote's chemical properties, and psychoactive and hallucinogenic effects to adore their deities. In addition, the book contains remarkable information regarding the phases of experience, effects and reactions caused by the consumption of peyote. The accounts of the physical symptoms and psychic manifestations caused by the influence of mescaline are intense, but well organized and documented with personal experiences from researchers in the neurological and pharmaceutical areas. Changes in perception and unusual hallucinatory responses are two of the effects produced by peyote. It is in part for these reasons, that there is substantial controversy regarding whether the peyote could be used as a drug in modem medicine and whether its use should be legalized.

The next three chapters of the book address the medical, pharmacological and chemical aspects of the plant respectively. The author covers practically most of the information, both past and present regarding the medical uses of peyote, including accounts of studies indicating the possible antibiotic actions of this plant. The chapter on pharmacology contains a list of peyote alkaloids for which the physiological effects have been studied; references are provided for every case reported. The main focus of this chapter is on the powerful mescaline, one of the major peyote alkaloids, for which physiological action, dosage, toxicity, and tolerance are discussed. At this point, the technicality of the book increases gradually with the use of both chemical compounds and scientific names, and becomes even a bit elaborated when it comes to the chemistry and biosynthetic pathways of some peyote alkaloids.

The chapter focusing on the botany of peyote deal with a wide range of topics, from botanical history, morphology, biogeography, ecology to a general section concerning the evolution of the peyote. Appendix A of the book includes the taxonomic treatment for Lophophora, which is based on an original article which was published by the author in 1969. Altogether, this chapter condenses all the previous information regarding the biosystematics of peyote, and provides an update of its current knowledge based on the most recent studies. Although conservation of biological diversity was not the objective of the book, I feel that the discussion on conservation, management and policy issues of this interesting cacti could have been expanded.

Technically, there are few minor criticisms. A glossary in Peyote: The Divine Cactus would have been a nice addition to facilitate the reader's full understanding of the terminology related to the pharmacology, chemistry and evolution of peyote. The inclusion of many scientific names of plants, excessive structural diagrams of peyote alkaloids (chapters six and seven, and Appendix B) and chemical compounds requires a general understanding of plant taxonomy and organic chemistry, even with the author's careful avoidance of excessive technical jargon.

In conclusion, this book contains actual experiences of the author about the natural history of one of the most important cacti in human culture. Because most of this information had been presented in the first edition, I think the second edition of Peyote: The Divine Cactus was premature. Although the book may not attract college students, it is a good reference and I recommend it to any library in the biological sciences and to persons in the ethnobotanical and cactological communities. - J. Hugo Cota, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

Book Reviews: Evolutionary

Diversity and Evolutionary Biology of Tropical Flowers. Peter K. Endress, 1996. ISBN 0-521 42088 (cloth US$84.95) 0-521-56510-3 (paper US$37.95) xiv + 511 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211 - If you ever wondered "Would our interpretation of the 'flower' be different if early botanists had lived in the tropics rather than northern latitudes?" - then this is probably a book that you should read. The answer turns out to be "not much" because, as Endress describes in his last chapter, the diversity of tropical flowers pretty well covers the spectrum within the group as whole.

So the present book on tropical flowers is an appropriate introduction to flowers in general. They are explored, with examples from the tropics, in approximately one half of the book, from four perspectives: (1) Organization a description of flower organography illustrated with a mixture of SEM views and original line drawings. (2) Floral construction - architecture. Here examples of construction which have the same organization but differ in size, symmetry or the way their construction arises are included. (3) Pollination modes and (4) Breeding systems. These distinctions, between (1) organization and (2) construction, and between (3) pollination modes and (4) breeding systems sometimes appear stretched, are not always obvious but in general are useful.

Another large section deals with the flower diversity of selected orders, families and genera that inhabit the tropics. The many details  of these discussions are treated within the framework of the earlier chapters and provide a fascinating glimpse of these organisms and how they interact with their pollinators. Once again, this section is generously illustrated with high quality SEM views and original drawings. Considerable effort is taken to include data and questions about flower function as well as structure. These topics lead to discussions of selection and evolution.

A general discussion of floral evolution and a short chapter on "Prospects" complete the manuscript. Finally, the book ends with a very full bibliography, a helpful glossary of terms, an appendix of the classes, subclasses, orders and families discussed in the book and two indexes; one, a list of the organisms, plants and animals mentioned in the text and a general subject index.

Developmental botanists will wish for more discussion of the cellular basis of organ diversity and will ask about the physiological and molecular basis of the flowers discussed. Unfortunately, for the flowers under discussion, little data exists at levels beyond those examined by the author. The diversity of structure and history represented in these tropical flowers will mean that present ideas of flower development, based on a few model species from temperate latitudes, will ultimately require modification in order to incorporate this diversity within general theories of flower development.

In summary, an excellent book, carefully and thoughtfully produced, that should appeal to a wide spectrum of botanists. - R. I. Greyson (Emeritus), University of Western Ontario, London ON.

Book Reviews: General

How Nature Works: the Science of Self-organized Criticality. Per Bak. 1996. ISBN 0-38794791-4 (cloth US$27.00), 212 pp. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 - How does nature work? How does nature's complexity arise from the simple rules of physics? In How Nature Works Per Bak asks these questions and suggests that the answers can be found in a pile of sand. Actually, he uses a sand pile as a model to illustrate a theory of complex systems which he calls "self-organized criticality" (SOC). He tells the story of the development of SOC, a theory which explains patterns found in many complex systems. Although the study of complex systems is not new to science, Bak's perspective may be a helpful new way of looking at and understanding them.

In the first chapter, the author tells us that a theory of complex systems must explain a wide range of phenomena which characterize complex systems, such as catastrophes, fractals, l/f noise, and Zipf s law. An interesting link between these patterns of complexity is that they can all be described as power laws. Self-organized criticality, Bak suggests, is a fundamental principle of complex systems, because it explains how such patterns (power laws) can arise.

In the following chapters, the author narrates the discovery of SOC and explains the theory in detail. With simple mathematics and clear illustrations, Bak relates how his theory has been applied to complex phenomena in many fields of study, including geology, astronomy, evolutionary theory, and economics. Nearly a quarter of the book is dedicated to applying SOC as the "theory" of punctuated equilibria in evolution.

If SOC explains the behavior of complex systems, then it is applicable in many situations that were not mentioned in the book. Self-organized criticality could be used to explain the timing of developmental events, allometric relationships, the self-thinning law, and the relationship between the number of cell types and the number of genes in different organisms. If SOC is as useful a theory of complex systems as the author proposes, then it could be of great explanatory value in biology, ecology, and botany as well.

Bak and his theory have been featured in many popular articles and books about complexity theorizing, but SOC has often been treated as just another fishy theory in the sea of ideas. Although How Nature Works may be seen by some as Bak's blatant promotion of his theory of self-organized criticality, one thing is certain; SOC has already made a tremendous impact. The impact of SOC can be seen, as he mentions in the preface of the book, in the fact that the original paper has been cited more than 2,000 times since its publication in 1987.

How Nature Works is stimulating and interesting, full of the Bak's personal insights into the practice and philosophy of empirical and theoretical science. The book was easy to read and would be of interest to professionals and graduate students in the sciences, while remaining accessible to undergraduates and non-scientists.

This book is a critical read for anyone interested in evolutionary theory and/or complex systems theory. - James Lynwood Smith 11, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA

Notable Women in the Life Sciences: a Biographical Dictionary. B.F. Shearer and B.S. Shearer eds. 1996. ISBN 0-313-29302-3 (cloth US$49.95) 456 pp. Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 - A representative story from this collection of biographical sketches of 97 female life scientists is that of Dr. Mary Jane Guthrie (1895-1975) a cancer researcher. In 1934 she applied for a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, and was told that "although she might be an outstanding scientist, as a woman she had to present extra proof of her excellence in order to receive a grant." Many of these biographies provide inspiring examples of how these scientists overcame gender bias and other obstacles to achieve great successes in their careers.

The 97 biographies vary from a single page to several pages in length, and some include photographs of the scientist. These biographical sketches were provided by 66 contributors, and many of them are high quality, but some of them are less notable, primarily due to a superficial treatment of the subject. A few of the entries, including an excellent piece by cell biologist Marilyn Gist Farquhar, are autobiographical. Most of the essays deal with twentieth century figures but some interesting scientists from previous centuries are included as well.

A wide range of biologists and physicians is included in this book, and an appendix is provided to categorize the scientists by field. Nine are about botanists, and five are essays on horticulturists. The scientists range from well-known women such as Katherine Esau, Rosiland Franklin, and Barbara McClintock to some less famous, but equally interesting, figures. Another appendix provides a listing of the awards received by these scientists including the Nobel Prize and the National Medal of Science.

This volume is written for the general reader with a high school level science background. Despite the uneven nature of the book due to the numerous contributors, I recommend it to those with interests in the history of science and to readers who want to learn more about the role of women in science. - John Z. Kiss, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio

Sea Life: A Complete Guide to the Marine Environment. G. Waller, ed. 1996. ISBN 1-56098-633-6 (cloth US$49.95) 504 pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, P.O. Box 960, Herndon VA 22070-0960 - Quick. You're landing at Washington National from abroad. You have three minutes to fill out your landing card before the tray tables must be in their upright and locked positions and the flight attendant becomes (incredibly) even more surly. You come to the field marked "Occupation." What do you write down? Professor, educator, civil servant, student? Perhaps. Given the choice between botanist or biologist, though, which would you write down?

I freely admit that when I asked to review Sea Life I had no idea of its content. Would it be yet another picture book that would finally cause the coffee table to collapse under the weight of like volumes? Would it be another textbook for the student of marine biology? It was to be a hybrid of the two. As the Foreword clearly states, ,its accessible style and wealth of illustration make it an ideal book for students of marine science, the seafarer and the general reader wishing to learn more about the marine environment and sea life."

From the opening chapter, "Oceanography and Marine Biology," the reader is struck by how comprehensive the treatments are. In the first 100 pages alone, for instance, we are presented with the history of marine exploration, plate tectonics, the physical and chemical nature of oceans, classification of marine organisms down to the level of class or even subclass, the pelagic and benthic environments, and coastal ecology, which includes the shoreline, intertidal environments, estuaries and salt marshes, mangroves, kelp forest, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs. All of this is literally crammed into 100 pages of margin-to-margin, 8-point type. However, the text is accurate, neither too technical nor oversimplified, and amply illustrated for the novice.

The balance of the book is (unequally) divided between identifying and describing the biology of invertebrates and vertebrates. Watercolor plates, 55 of them, by Marc Dando beautifully illustrate the diversity of all the phyla with accompanying descriptions and distributions on facing pages. Some plates are more successful than others, particularly those of the sharks, bony fishes, and cetaceans. In descriptions of the sharks, ventral views of the head and outlines of teeth are shown to aid in identification. The volume is never intended as a field guide (such references are supplied), and so the plates are not intended to be exhaustive but merely representative.

Chapters on biology each of the major phyla are uneven. Some such as those covering marine invertebrates, fishes, and seabirds are very thorough and copiously illustrated, whereas others are rather inadequate. Taking as an example the chapter on my marine speciality, cetaceans, the author presents modem data on evolution, taxonomy, habitats and distribution, food and feeding, swimming, respiration and diving, the senses, reproduction, and stranding. The bibliographic entries are all from this decade or the last, but virtually all are popular works with no mention of the ongoing debate in the literature about the phylogeny of toothed and baleen whales based on molecular evidence. Finally, I found the factsheets at the end of the fish and seabird chapters extremely useful.

The reference section at the close of the book includes sections on observing, recording, and sampling; glossary (in what must be 6-point type, requiring a magnifying glass or a dissecting microscope); and appendices with metric system and conversion factors, prefixes and suffixes, Beaufort Wind Scale, and distribution/migration maps for selected organisms.

Sea Life is far from perfect. I expected to see much, much more coverage of mangrove communities, saltmarsh grasses, seagrasses, and algae other than kelps. Surely diatoms merit more than five short sentences in the context of phytoplankton. Red algae are mentioned once and as one word: "Rhodophyta." Dinoflagellates and red tides receive five paragraphs combined. Second and more mechanical, the type size and justified text make reading a chore. Having said that, if the type size were increased, the book's length would increased by as much as a 30%, raising the price. I also object to the consistent capitalization of common names for organisms such as Gray Whale, Dugong, and Queen Scallop, for which there is no sound reason.

Returning to the dilemma facing our world traveller at the beginning of this review, those who define themselves narrowly as botanists will likely find this book disappointing if not irrelevant. Those who call themselves biologists or environmentalists will revel in the up-to-date information and comprehensive detail in the fundamentals of oceanography and marine biology. Those who simply love the world's oceans and the biota associated with them will cherish Sea Life and refer to it often. - Alec M. Pridgeon, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Book Review: Horticultural

Plants that Merit Attention, Vol. II. Shrubs. Janet Meakin Moore and Nancy Peterson Brewer, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-88192-347-8 (cloth US$59.95) 363 pp. Timber Press, 133 SW 2nd Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527 - All plant lovers know that choosing the appropriate plants to be included in a book of this type is largely subjective, as the list of cultivated shrubs is so extensive it would be impossible to place them in any single text. With that in mind, the introduction of this text begins by explaining its purpose, that is, to "enrich our horticultural heritage an foster the use of... largely overlooked plants......" The plants "... must be unusual and not readily available......" Toward this goal, Poor and Brewster are largely successful as many of their featured plants are not even mentioned in much more comprehensive treatments such as Manual of Woody Landscape Plants by Michael Dirr (Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign, IL).

The alphabetically arranged text includes many worthwhile species. Although the listing appears to favor warmer zones of the United States, all parts of the country are represented. I was perplexed, however, given the goal stated above, that ubiquitous plants like Forsythia x interinedia (Border Forsythia), Euonymus alatus (Buming Bush), and Abelia x grandiflora (Glossy Abelia), all of which most gardeners would consider largely available and overused, were chosen, while many other more useful and noteworthy plants were not.  Poor and Brewster rightfully state that space limitations preclude any treatment of the extensive genus Rhododendron but then include a few roses and conifers which one could easily argue are plant groups too extensive for inclusion. Their choice of roses and conifers seemed quite arbitrary.

When I was finally successful in putting my opinions of plant choice aside, I proceeded to enjoy this book immensely. The authors tapped the experience of dozens of cooperators. This enormous effort has resulted in the compilation of an accurate and technical text. The only negative of this "outside influence" is that the reader in confronted with a systematic and dry text, without the personal flair so often interjected by plant persons such as Michael Dirr (Manual of Woody Landscape Plants) and Wayne Winterrowd (Annuals for Connoisseurs, Prentice Hall, New York). The text reads more like a report than an experience. Yet, given the number of inaccurate, vacuous landscape books (containing all pretty pictures and no content), it was a pleasant relief to enjoy and learn simultaneously. This is a serious text for serious gardeners.

The photographs elevate this text over similar treatments in two ways. First, most texts that are "reference" type rather than the "coffee table" type have either no photographs or at most a sampling. This book is filled with color photographs. Second, the photos are conveniently located adjacent to the plant description, not in a sequestered section reserved for glossy paper. In fact, all the paper in this text is sumptuous and resilient. The photographs are informative and the quality is excellent. The only aesthetic detractor is the somewhat uneven photo layout on many pages.

The book has some of the familiar additions such as a list of plants by hardiness zone and a list of plants that will perform well under certain environmental conditions. Some of the more unique and clever additions include a directory of botanic gardens, arboreta, and parks, and a nursery source directory. Each plant in the text has a code that directs readers to a garden location where they can view the plant and sources where they can purchase the plant. I actually located a plant that I had heard of years ago but was never able to find. I have mail-ordered it, thanks to this helpful index!

After finally putting this book down (it was difficult), I felt myself longing for my former life in Zone 7b, knowing that now that I've settled in Massachusetts (Zone 5), my only hope of seeing many of my favorite plants on a moment's notice is an excellent photographic text such as this one. Plants the Merit Attention, Vol. II. Shrubs should be included in the library of every horticulture department, landscape architect, and serious gardener. - Michael Marcotrigiano, Dept. of Plant and Soil Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Book Review: Paleobotany

Hitherto. Albert G. Long, 1996. ISBN 1-85821-350-9 (cloth £15.50) 278 pp. Pentland Press Ltd., 1 Hutton Close, South Church, Bishop Auckland, Durham, DL14 6XB, United Kingdom. - Ever since I read G. G. Simpson's Attending Marvels as a graduate student, I have been eagerly picking up autobiographical works by paleontologists, hoping to relive that rush of exciting and adventure in the field with Simpson collecting fossil mammals in wild and woolly world of Patagonia in the 1930's. But alas, we cannot all be Simpson, nor even write like him; thus oftimes, memoirs are merely memoirs--happy reminiscences of days gone by. This is the case with Hitherto.

Among paleobotanists, Albert G. Long is best known for his meticulous work on Early Carboniferous seeds. Although the oldest seed plant, Elkinsia polymorpha (Rothwell et al. 1989), stems from the latest Late Devonian, the seed-bearing habit was already firmly established soon afterwards (in the seed fems, cordaites, and conifers) in the Early Carboniferous. These 360 million year old seeds differ from those of geological younger gymnosperms by the lack of an enclosed integument; the ovule commonly sits naked in a cupule with long, fused or free, upward projecting lobes-the precursor to the integument. One of the simplest Early Carboniferous seeds, Genomosperma kidstonii, like many of Long's other objects of study, was found by the man himself in permineralized coal balls from SE Scotland. The story behind Hitherto - meaning "up to now" - details the other side of Long's life as he is also an avid entomologist, prodigious collector, and keen observer of natural history. Although he may have earned his living as a science teacher, Long's true vocation was that of a naturalist; his great passions, fossil plants and living insects.

The book is divided up into 6 chapters, most of which are composed of articles which were previously published elsewhere, and two appendices. Two of the chapters, chapter 5 on botany and chapter 6 on paleobotany, will be most interesting to the neobotanical and paleobotanical reader, although the first chapter, an autobiographical essay, also includes some amusing paleobotanical anecdotes (pp. 15-16, pp. 19-22).

It is unfortunate, however, that the book starts off somewhat slowly with this rather rambling autobiography which is crammed full of personal details. This will certainly be cherished by Long's progenitors but is perhaps of lesser interest to non-relatives. It is also a pity that this first chapter is peppered with references to the author's devout faith in Christianity, as we Americans who are used to the separation of church and state (or in this case, religious and professional scientific life) may be scared off by Long's pious perspectives of the world. However, if you can look beyond this, it is very interesting to note that this deeply religious man sees no conflict between believing in God and natural selection.

Simply skipping up to Chapter 5 will solve this problem, however. You can always return to the first chapter once you have developed an appreciation for the man and his dry sense of humor. Among the botanical articles reprinted in Chapter 5 is a well written essay on the early history of seeds--Long's presidential address delivered at the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club.

For paleobotanists in particular, the most interesting parts of the book are the three articles on fossil plants in the last chapter. The first article is another version of the author's autobiography which focuses on his paleobotanical work and other scientific endeavors. This article repeats much of the information in the first chapter of Hitherto, but is more concise and is amusingly written. The second article is a rebuttal to W. N. Stewart's (I 983) textbook on paleobotany in which Long clarifies his views in order to stay in the running for credit for the cupule-carpel theory. The third and fourth articles are reviews of previous work on fossil plants in Berwickshire (SE Scotland) which are historically interesting and could be of great assistance to future paleobotanists wanting to collect in the area.

The book appears for the most part to be free of typographical errors, but there are some frustrating omissions, such as the dates of publication of the middle two articles on fossil plants in Chapter 6. The title of the fourth article is also missing from the chapter heading.

Disregarding the minor flaws in editing and the verbose nature of some of the prose, what I like best about Hitherto are the charming black-and-white snapshots from Long's family photo album which add a personal touch to the book. Also fun to read are the appended letters Long had exchanged with some of the giants of the English paleobotanical scene: F. W. Oliver, W. H. Lang, A. C. Seward. I am personally fond of listening to reminiscences of my aging aunts and of leafing through old family pictures, but Hitherto may not turn out to be everybody's cup of tea. - Carole T. Gee, Institute of Paleontology, University of Bonn, Germany.

Literature cited

Rothwell, G. W., Scheckler, S. E., and Gillespie, W. H. 1989. Elkinsia gen. nov., a late Devonian gymnosperm with cupulate ovules. Bot. Gaz. 150: 170-189.
Simpson, G. G. 1934 (renewed 1964). Attending Marvels - A Patagonian Journey. Time Inc., New York, 289 pp.
Stewart, W. N. 1983. Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 405 pp.

Book Review: Physiological

The Physiology of Plants under Stress. Vol. l: Abiotic Factors. E. T. Nilsen and D. M. Orcutt. 1996. ISBN 0-471-03152-6 (cloth US$125-00) 689 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. - What is this book about? The answer appears to hinge on the definition of stress, but, strangely enough, the authors are not too clear about their use of the concept and term and offer no less than three definitions, two in the introduction and a third in the glossary. However, the reader soon finds that stress is understood here in the widest possible sense, as any condition outside of a hypothetical physiological optimum, to offer my own definition. As to be expected from the title, biotic stresses are not covered in this book, less expected is the exclusion of abiotic stresses such as nutrient deficiencies, salt stress, heavy metals, and below- and aboveground pollutants. As an aside, it should be said that this book has very little in common with its much smaller precursor, the identically titled 1987 book by M. G. Hale and D. M. Orcutt (John Wiley, New York).

The first part of this book is largely an introduction to those aspects of plant physiology that are important for understanding responses to environmental stresses, and covers the subjects growth regulation, plant membranes, phytohormones, carbon balance, and water relations. This part also includes methodological chapters, such as an introduction to plant growth analysis, measurement of plant water relations, and an excellent chapter on the use of stable isotopes in ecophysiological studies of plants. Curiously, no mention is made of methods to measure photosynthesis and respiration. With the exception of the phytohormones chapter, the chapters in this part would make good reading material for introductory courses in physiological plant ecology. The chapter on phytohormones is rather too long and is much less mechanistic in scope than the other chapters in this section. This is clearly partly a reflection of the state of the field, but one wonders whether it was really necessary to illustrate this lack of understanding on 116 pages. Additional methodological chapters are dispersed through the second part of the book, including discussions of techniques to measure irradiance and temperature, as well as a somewhat long treatment of genetic engineering techniques.

The second part of the book covers specific kinds of abiotic stresses, such as drought, flooding, irradiance, and temperature. The excellent treatment of plant water relations is clearly the strong point of this book, reflecting the interest of the first author in this field. These chapters frequently go beyond 'textbook science' to incorporate recent and even controversial topics such as the criticism of the soil-plant-air continuum model of water transport in plants. Many of the examples used are from and systems, such as plants from deserts and Mediterranean climates, and one is occasionally left to wonder how all this may apply to water stress in plants from mesic climates. A similar thought occurred to me when reading the chapter on flooding, which focuses on responses of wetland plants to flooding conditions. How may such responses relate to those exhibited by many non-wetland plants that have to deal with occasional oxygen deficiencies in the soil environment? The chapter on irradiance discusses light levels in the environment and their measurement, responses of photosynthesis and physiological sensors to light, effects of UV radiation, and adaptations to high-fight and low-light conditions and responses to heterogeneous light environments. Photoinhibition is discussed on about three pages, and, again, actual stress responses are only a minor part of this chapter. The chapters on high and low temperatures have a stronger emphasis on stress physiology, but they could serve equally well as general discussions of temperature effects on plant ecophysiology.

The third part of the book contains three chapters on integrative topics. One of these discusses genetic engineering approaches to confer stress tolerance to crop plants. The other two offer a synthesis of stress ecophysiology and discuss multiple stress interactions and generalities, research trends, and future directions. Much of this is written in the style of a discussion chapter in a research paper, in places long-winded and with overuse of phrases such as "this may" and "this suggests", in places gives the impression of hand waving.

So, again, what is this book about? Much of this book deals with plants that are presumably adapted to stressful' conditions, and thus it addresses not only the physiology of plants under stress, but also evolutionary solutions for coping with such conditions. Obviously, because there is no stress-free environment, all plants are to some degree adapted to survive various stresses.

Thus, there is no difference between stress-physiology and physiology, and this is the main message of this book. The authors have chosen to write a textbook about the ecophysiology of plants, in order to help students understand the responses of plants to stress, but somehow they forgot to tell the readers (and perhaps the publisher?) that this is what they were doing. This book is not, as the title would have it, about the physiology of plants under stress, or at least only a small part of it is. Instead, much of the book is devoted to the ecophysiology of plants that grow in environments that would induce stress in plants not adapted to such conditions.

Using a common approach in physiological ecology, the authors "determine appropriate trait combinations that enable plants to cope with a diversity of environmental conditions" (a quote from the introduction), and they do this by inference; for example, the physiological difference between a xerophyte and a mesophyte is interpreted as the adaptive trait syndrome to drought conditions. Lacking other information, this is often a useful approach, but it creates the danger of teleological adaptationist reasoning, and indeed, such reasoning is by no means absent from the book. 'The preface announces that "the significance of evolutionary processes in the development of plant stress responses" is emphasized, but there are no discussions of any kind of evolutionary processes in the book, just frequent references to presumed adaptations. Such loose usage of evolutionary terms occurs throughout; for example, the terms adaptation and acclimation often appear together, giving the impression that these are processes that operate on a similar scale. The difference between phenotypic and genetic change is discussed in the final chapter without a reference to the fact that one takes place within individualals and often within short time periods, while the other, with few exceptions, refers to populations and long periods of time. Few physiological textbooks ever mention evolution outside of the introduction and the authors are to be commended for making the attempt to introduce an evolutionary perspective into the field, but the result in this case does not speak for itself.

A word on design and illustrations: The cover design makes this book blend in with the classic plant physiology textbooks from the 1960s, and the same can be said for the rest of the book design. Figures are mostly adequate to illustrate the concepts discussed in the text, but quite a few are of poor quality, with small symbols that are difficult to distinguish and thin lines and crosshatchings that are virtually invisible (e.g. in figures 5.7 and 6.6).

Most textbooks are mixed bags and this one is no exception, but it deserves to have the review end on a positive note. The reader gets much more than promised by the title. The book is best where it summarizes the results of current research on plant ecophysiology, and those parts make excellent reading for an upper division or graduate level class on the subject. Study review outlines and self-study questions at the end of each chapter make this a genuine textbook, but the prohibitive price will unfortunately ensure that few professors will actually adopt this as a text. This leaves the option of the copy-machine fate that awaits most overpriced books and I would highly recommend the book for such use, in strictly legal amounts, of course. H. Jochen Schenk, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara

Book Review: Phytochemical

Plant Alkaloids: A Guide to their Discovery and Distribution. R.F. Raffauf. 1996. ISBN 156022-860-1 (cloth US$69.95) 298 pp. Food Products Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904 - As biologists, well know that evolution over millions of years has produced an incredibly diverse collection of secondary plant chemicals. In order to protect themselves against viruses, bacteria, fungi and herbivores, they evolved the ability to produce a variety of biologically active compounds. Humans have utilized these various plant products, especially the pharmacologically active alkaloids, for millennia.

Many secondary compounds are still unknown. Recent estimates (Mendelsohn and Balick 1995) suggest that there are more than 300 undiscovered potential pharmaceuticals in tropical forests. In the race to discover novel compounds in the rapidly disappearing rain forests, Raffauf has cataloged Dragendorff s reagent test results from 30,000 samples (from 19,000 different plant species and about 4,000 genera). Samples were taken from 315 families of higher plants, including ferns, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.

After a brief introduction about methods, Raffauf lists his extensive database alphabetically, by family. Each family has a short paragraph noting economic uses and plant distribution. This is followed by a list of species that tested positive with Dragendorff's reagent, and then a list of species that tested negative for alkaloids. For some well known families, the author also includes pertinent alkaloid references.

This book obviously includes years of data collection, and is an essential resource for those interested in pharmacognosy or alkaloid chemistry. It is, in essence, a road map showing all the detours and potholes that normally accompany natural products research. 'The book has, however, some shortcomings. While material sampled was from South America, New Guinea and Africa, there are no source locations given for tested species. Also, as the author points out, Dragendorff s reagent can give false test results. Still, a high percentage of the 3,200 species that tested positive should actually contain alkaloids. As these alkaloids are identified, they will play a critical role in our understanding of plant taxonomy. When the alkaloids are tested for biological activity, they may represent a huge benefit to society as new medicines. - Michelle A. Briggs, Department of Biology, Lycoming College, Williamsport, PA

Literature Cited

Mendelsohn, R. and M.J. Balick. 1995. The value of undiscovered pharmaceuticals in tropical forests. Economic Botany 49 (2):223-228

Book Reviews: Structural and Developmental

The Anther: Form, Function and Phylogeny. D'Arcy, William G. & Richard C. Keating, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-521-48063-9 (cloth US$80.00) 351 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211. - This is a most welcome book which covers most up-to-date information on the anther, its form, function and phylogeny. Based on papers Presented to a Symposium held at the 1993 International Botanical Congress in Yokohama, Japan, plus a few more, the book consists of 13 chapters written by different authors, the first of which focuses on the general morphological and histological characteristics of the anthers and stamens and the way they function as an introduction to the following chapters.

The fossil history of stamens deals with "the earliest megafossil evidence of angiosperm reproductive structures" from  Aptian deposits, and builds up with findings from later periods, adding information on the diversity of fossil stamens, and finally arriving at the profusion of new taxa in the Early Tertiary with continuous specialization of insect vectors, development of the wind pollination syndrome, etc.

All aspects of stamen morphology are discussed, including the terms anther, connective, filament, theca, etc. as well as the way they were used by different authors. Old ideas on angiosperm stamen plesiomorphic attributes are considered and evaluated against phylogenctic hypotheses for flowering plants and outgroup analysis. From this, it arises that groups that were pointed to as having plesiomorphic attributes have now been shown to be derived rather than basal angiosperms and therefore their attributes might not really help in understanding plesiomorphic ones. Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms may place different groups at the base of different cladograms which could change present ideas about the evolution of stamens depending on which groups are considered to be basal.

Diversifications from a basal anther plan are demonstrated; different anther sizes, different behaviour once anthers are dehisced, the relationship between pollination biology and anther shape, anther shape and floral construction, anther shape and anther histology, anther shape and systematics are the subjects (subtitles) in this chapter which ends by trying to mark major evolutionary trends: from basifixed with massive connective to dorsifixed with narrow, short, connective and bulging pollen sacs. Increased ratio polliniferous to non polliniferous tissue is apparently the result of the appearanceof a more elaborate perianth taking over the protective and attractive task previously performed by stamens.

The discussion on the possible homology of stamens and carpels is really interesting as is the conclusion: whereas the evidence suggests a leaflike origin for the carpel, this is not the case for the stamen.

Chapter six-Heterochrony in the Anther-tries to evaluate changes in ontogenetic rates or timing during evolution. This interesting approach seems too incipient and faces several problems, particularly with respect to the study of anther development during the early stages which are "precisely the stages that may be subject to temporal change" in the examples cited.

The Diversity of Endothecial Patterns in the angiosperms is treated through the review of taxa of different hierarchies analyzing current knowledge on endothecial thickenings and concluding that "variation in endothecial patterns is most usefully employed for phylogenetic studies within the family ... the only level at which it has contributed significantly". It is also indicated that data on endothecial thickenings are mainly corroborative so that they are better used to support previous hypotheses, and although these varied patterns are important for descriptive purposes, three main ones have proved phylogenetically informative: helical, baseplate, and U-shaped.

Anthers may have calcium oxalate packages (OP) which occur in some families-mainly Solanaceae and Ericaceae. An OP is present in most genera of Solanaceae as well as in many taxa of Ericaceae. They are considered apomorphic and of independent origin. The question of the OP function is addressed quite extensively but no role can be assigned to them with any certainty at this time. Only a suggestion that "calcium oxalate and perhaps the unknown impurities in the OP should be considered as another kind of reward, along with nectar, pollen, oils, etc., offered by flowers to encourage pollination".

Anther adaptation in animal pollination is always an attractive subject and here it is pointed out that anthers can themselves be primary attractants as well as perianth parts; many interesting plant-pollinator interactions are described.

Two chapters refer to the use of stamen characters in two families; one demonstrates the importance of androecial characters in reflecting natural relationships in the Asclepiadaceae whereas the other points out that although stamens are less frequently considered than other floral parts in morphological and systematic studies, they show a great diversity, some brought about by different developmental processes.

A revision of old and useful new methods for studying stamen specimens under light and electron microscopes, histochemistry and molecular techniques, as well as references for the study of pollen and pollination are given in chapter 12.

Although each chapter closes with the literature cited and each uses one to four and a half pages for this purpose, there is a whole chapter (the last) on bibliography on stamen morphology and anatomy. This will be extremely useful for students of stamen morphology, especially since it ends with a subject and a systematic index.

A few minor errors have escaped proof reading (the authors might have noticed this by now) and their correction would improve next editions: Chapter 8, Fig. 18, figure legend indicates a double arrow where there is just one. Chapter 9, Fig. 5 is referred to as Hibbertia dentata in the text, whereas the figure legend indicates it is Melicytus lanceolatus; some figures are several pages away from their reference in the text which subtracts fluency from the reading. Chapter 11, Fig. 52, the meaning of R in the figure is not indicated in the legend. Chapters two and three refer very frequently to structures and features in papers by different authors; although photographs of these structures might not have been available, simple drawings might have been of extreme help for those of us who have not been in contact with representatives of the numerous families, genera and species that are considered in these chapters.

One of the first problems faced with while reading was the small type used, which made the reading rather tiresome; I must confess that by the sixth or seventh chapter I was used to the size, but it did bother me for quite some time.

I would recommend this as a very good reference book for those researchers involved in stamen studies be they morphological, phylogenetic or focused toward whatever aspect of staminal characteristics. - Paula M. Hermann, Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina

Agnes Chase's First Book of Grasses: The Structure of Grasses Explained for Beginners. 4th ed. L.G. Clark and R.W. Pohl. 1996. ISBN 156098-656-5. (paper US$16.95). 127 pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, 470 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7lOO, Washington, D.C. 20560 - Teachers and students of agrostology rejoice! This new edition of Agnes Chase's First Book of Grasses at long last brings back a much-needed, user-friendly primer for introducing the beginner to what is too often seen as the dull, esoteric world of grasses. Those well acquainted with the original work and subsequent editions can consider the pros and cons of revisions that encompass changes in text, format, and illustrations (see Preface to the Fourth Edition and R. Schmid, Taxon 46:149-150). However, this new edition brought to us by Clark and Pohl should be evaluated on its own merits still as the brainchild of Agnes Chase.

The beauty of this book is in its simplicity. It works as it is intended-a "tutorial" for students in introductory agrostology classes or for the brave soul setting out on his/ her own adventure into grass identification. The first stumbling block for most students is the specialized terminology of agrostology. Chase deals with this point with the convincing example of the practicality of terminology-just how can one describe starting a car without using the words peculiar to cars. From here and through each of the 12 lessons, terminology is reinforced as it teaches. Likewise, the organization of the lessons (with the exception of the new "Lesson 12: The Bamboos and the Rices") according to spikelet types gets to the heart of understanding grass structure, starting simply and moving toward greater complexity. With this foundation, keys and grass classification become less frustrating for the beginner. Chase's voice in the Introduction concerning the importance of grasses as plants and friends of humans is as compelling today as it was when first written. One can hope that even the most reluctant student will listen to her timeless message. Additions made by Clark and Pohl include " How to Study Grasses" and "Synopsis of Grass Classification" as well as a glossary and reference list.

New students should be introduced to grasses with this text-there is no other that accomplishes so much with so little to dispel the mysteries of grass terminology and structure. And for the economically minded student, the price is right. We can thank Clark and Pohl for refreshing the spirit of Agnes Chase and presenting her to new generations of botanists and students of grasses. For Pohl, this stands as a fitting legacy to have offered at the end of his life. - Laura A. Morrison, Department of Plant Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 Israel

Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send e-mail to <>, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly!-Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review
** = book reviewed in this issue

The Alpine Flora of the Rocky Mountains, Volume 1 Scott, Richard W. 1997. ISBN 0-87480-482-5 (cloth US$110.00) 901pp. University of Utah Press, 101 University Services Building, Salt Lake City UT 84112

Applications of Modern Mass Spectrometry in Plant Science Research Newton, Russell P. & Terence J. Walton, eds. 1996. ISBN 0- 19-854965-2 (cloth US$145.00) 240pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10016

A Book of Salvias Clebsch, Betsy, 1997. ISBN 088192-369-9 (cloth US$29.95) 269 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de la República Argentina. I Zuloaga, Fernando 0. & Osvaldo Morrone, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-915279-40-1 (cloth US$30.00) 344pp. Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St.Louis MO 63166-0299

Compendium of Peanut Diseases, Second Edition Kokalis-Burelle, N., D.M. Porter, R. Rodríguez-Kábana, D.H. Smith & P. Subrahmanyam, eds. 1997. ISBN 0-89054-218-X (paper US$35.00) 94pp. APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul MN 55121-2097

*Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi Kaye, T.N., A. Liston, R.M. Love, D.L. Luoma, R.J. Meinke, and M.V. Wilson, eds. 1997. ISBN 0-9656852-0-9 (paper US$25.00) 296 pp. Native Plant Society of Oregon, 804 Jefferson Ave., LaGrande, Oregon 97850

The Evolutionary Biology of Plants Niklas, Karl J., 1997. ISBN 0-226-58082-2 (cloth US$65.00) 0226-58083-0 (paper US$19.95) 468 pp. The University of Chicago Press, Order Department, 11030 South Langley Avenue, Chicago IL 60628

Experiments in Ecology Underwood, A.J. 1997. ISBN cloth 0-521-55329-6, paper 0-521-55696-1 (cloth US$80.00, paper US$34.95) 504pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211

Flora of Great Britain and Ireland: Volume 5: Butomaceae-Orchidaceae Sell, Peter & Gina Murrell 1996. ISBN 0-521-55339-3 (cloth US$100.00) 410pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211

La Forêt en Jeu: L'extractivisme en Amonzonie Centrale Emperaire, Laure, ed. (Latitudes 23) 1996. ISBN 2-7099-1334-8 (paper) 232 pp. Orstrom Éditions, 32, avenue Henri-Varagant 93143 Bondy (in French)

The Gardener's Guide to Growing Fritillaries Pratt, Kevin, and Michael Jefferson-Brown, 1997. ISBN 0-88192-387-7 (cloth US$29.95) 160 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

Genetics, Cytogenetics and Breeding of Crop Plants Bahl, P.N. & P.M. Salimath, eds. 1996. ISBN I886106-59-2 (cloth) 313pp. Science Publishers Inc., 10 Water Street #310, Lebanon NH 03766

Growing Bulbs: The Complete Practical Guide Mathew, Brian, 1997. ISBN 0-88192-384-2 (cloth US$ 29.95) 160 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 07204-3527

The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise Takacs, David 1996. cloth ISBN 0-8018-5400-8 (cloth US$35.95) 393pp. The John Hopkins University Press, 2715 N. Charles Street, Baltimore MD 21218-4319

Kalmia: Mountain Laurel and Related Species Jaynes, Richard, 1997. ISBN 0-88192-367-2 (cloth US$34.95) 360 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

Lois Hole's Favorite Trees and Shrubs Hole, Lois 1997. ISBN 1-55105-081-1 (paper US$15.95) 368pp. Lone Pine Publishing, 16149 Redmond Way, #180, Redmond WA 98052

Manu: The Biodiversity of Southeastern Peru Wilson, Don E. & Abelardo Sandoval, eds. 1997. ISBN 1-56098-710-3 (cloth US$35.00) 679pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, P.O. Box 960, Herndon VA 22070-0960

Moss Gardening: Including Lichens, Liverworts, and Other Miniatures Schenk, George 1997. ISBN 0-88192-370-2 (cloth US$34.95) 262pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

The Natural History of Pollination Proctor, Michael, Peter Yeo & Andrew Lack 1996. ISBN cloth 088192-352-4, paper 0-88192-353-2 (cloth US$42.95, paper US$24.95) 487pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

Natural Hybridization and Evolution Arnold, Michael L. 1997. ISBN cloth 0- 1 9-509974-5, paper 0-19-509975-3 (cloth US$60.00, paper US$29.95) 215pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10016

The Nature of Disease in Plants Scheffer, Robert P. 1996. ISBN 0-521-48247-X (cloth US$64.95) 325pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211

The Plant Disease Clinic and Field Diagnosis of Abiotic Diseases Shurtleff, Malcom C. & Charles W. Averre, III 1997. ISBN 0-89054-217-1 (cloth US$79.00) 256pp. APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul MN 55121-2097

Molecular Biology Lang, G.A. 1997. ISBN 0-85198978-0 (cloth US$100.00) 386pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10016

Plant Pathology, Fourth Edition Agrios, George N. 1997. ISBN 0- 1 2-044564-6 (cloth US$59.95) 635pp. Academic Press Inc., 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego CA 92101-4495

Plant Microbe Symbiosis: Molecular Approaches Fitter, A.H. & D.P. Stribley, eds. 1997. ISBN 0521-58718-2 (paper US$29.95) 197pp.Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211

Principles and Practice of Managing Soilborne Plant Pathogens Hall, Robert, ed. 1996. ISBN 089054-223-6 (cloth US$39.00) 342pp. APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul MN 55121-2097

Protein-Based Materials McGrath, Kevin & David Kaplan, eds. 1997. ISBN 0-8176-3848-2 (cloth US$79.95) 429pp. Birkhäuser Boston, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Rare Lilies of California Fiedler, Peggy Lee 1996. ISBN paper 0-943460-30- 1, cloth 0-943469-3 1 -X (paper US$24.95, cloth US$100.00) 153pp. Califomia Native Plant Society, 1722 J Street, Suite 17, Sacramento CA 95814

Reaching for the Sun; How Plants Work King, John, 1997. ISBN 0-521-55148-X (cloth US$54.95) 0521-58738-7 (paper US$16.95) 240 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211

Synthetic Biodegradable Polymer Scaffolds Atala, Anthony & David Mooney, eds. 1997. ISBN 08176-3919-5 (cloth US$99.00) 258pp. Birkhäuser Boston, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

The Tallgrass Restoration Handbook: For Prairies, Savannas, and Woodlands Packard, Stephen & Comelia F. Mutel, eds. 1997. ISBN cloth I55963-319-0, paper 1-55963-320-4 (cloth US$50.00, paper US$25.00) 432pp. Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington DC 20009

Techniques of Plant Cytogenetics Jahier, Joseph ed. 1996. ISBN 1-886106-57-6 (paper) 180pp. Science Publishers Inc., 10 Water Street #310, Lebanon NH 03766

Theoretical Ecosystem Ecology Ågren, Göran, and Ernesto Bosatta. 1997. ISBN 0-521-58022-6 (cloth US$49.95) 234 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211.

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