Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1997 v43 No 3 FallActions

Volume 43, Number 3: Autumn 1997
ISSN 0032-0919

Editor: Joe Leverich
Department of Biology, Saint Louis University
3507 Laclede Ave., Saint Louis MO 63103-2010
Telephone: (314) 977-3903
Fax: (314) 977-3658
e-mail: leverich @


News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees, Part I

BSA Enjoys August Meeting in Montréal

The annual meeting of the Botanical Society was held August 3-7 in Montréal at the Palais des Congrés de Montréal. The participants agreed that the Montréal meeting was one of the most successful in the past few years. The meeting was hosted by the Canadian Botanical Association/ L'Association Botanique Du Canada. Montréal was a beautiful and appropriate setting for the gathering of Botanists. The Montréal Botanical Gardens were made available to meeting particpants, and many enjoyed an afternoon or more visiting its beauty.

This year the Society met jointly with the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, the American Fern Society, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the International Society for Ecological Modeling, the Mycological Society of America, and the Torrey Botanical Society. A large number of symposia and contributed paper sessions were offered in addition to the important business meetings of the Society and its various sections. There are a number of reports from this meeting in this issue of the Plant Science Bulletin, and additional reports will appear in future issues. The Past-President's symposium, organized by Barbara Schaal, focused on Future Trends in Molecular Evolution.

Looking to the future, The Botanical Society will be meeting again with AIBS in August, 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland. The 1999 meeting will be held in Saint Louis, Missouri in conjunction with the XVI International Botanical Congress. Planning is proceeding for a BSA meeting in 2000 in Portland, Oregon.

PSB is Now on the BSA Website!

Thanks to the efforts of Scott D. Russell at the University of Oklahoma, the Plant Science Bulletin is now available in electronic format! He has converted the content of the 1997 issues of PSB, and it is now available at

The Botanical Society hopes that having the PSB content available via the internet will expand its availablity for members and non-members alike.

Editor's note: Scott Russell deserves special thanks for doing such an outstanding job of maintaining the BSA website, and thanks in particular from the PSB Editorial Committee and the Editor for getting PSB on-line!

ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of the Botanical Society of America, Inc. Periodical postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

Phone/Fax: 614/292-3519      email:

Reports from the Committees:

Archives and History Committee:

The main business of the Committee this year was the Society's request for biographical information on John Karling, for the Karling Awards, the first of which will be given out this summer.

Other than Karling, there is no news from the Committee. The archival material is still in the possession of Jim Mauseth in Austin, Texas, and no new material has been received over the course of the year.

The report on Karling:

John Sidney Karling was born in Austin, Texas on 2 August 1899. He had a BA (1919) and MA (1920) from the University of Texas and a Ph. D. in Botany from Columbia University (1923). He stayed at Columbia, as an instructor (1925-27), assistant professor (1927-35) and associate professor (1935-48), then went to Purdue as a full professor. He was head of the Department of Biological Sciences at Purdue from 1948-1959, then Wright Distinguished Research Professor until his retirement in 1965. He remained active for many years after his retirement.

Karling was a specialist in the systematics and evolution of zoosporic fungi, especially the Chitridiales. His other professional interests included cytology and the production of natural rubber and chicle. From 1927 to 1932, he worked on chicle production with the Tropical Plant Research Foundation in British Honduras (now Belize), in association with his first cousin, C. L. Lundell. Like many other botanists of his generation, Karling went to South America during World War II to carry out field inventories of strategic natural products; he was a field director for rubber exploration in Brazil in 1942 and 1943.

Karling belonged to several scientific societies, and served as recording secretary (1930-34), corresponding secretary (1934-40) and president (1941) for the Torrey Botanical Club, and secretary (1945-51) and vice president (1952) for BSA.

- Alan Whittemore, Chair

Conservation Committee:

Our activities included the following:

  • Invited several individuals to submit contributions to the Conservation Corner segment in the PSB.
  • Endorsed a multi-scientific society letter initiated by the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology regarding reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act.
  • Provided input into two regional management plans developed by USDA Forest Service.
- Tim Spira, Chair

Corresponding Members Committee

The Corresponding Members Committee consisted of Past Presidents Grady Webster, Harry Horner, and Barbara Schaal, Chair. Two positions for Corresponding Members became vacant in the 1996-1997 year. The membership of BSA was invited to submit nominations for Corresponding Members. Nominations consisted of a nominating letter and supporting letters from other plant scientists. Three outstanding nominations were received. The Corresponding Member Committee will submit for consideration the names of Dr. Shoichi Kawano, University of Kyoto, Japan, and Dr. Hong De yuan, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences.

- Barbara Schaal, Past President

Council Representative to the Executive Committee

Two major items of business were completed during the past year. First I was able to follow up on an offer from Wadsworth Publishing, and ultimately from their parent company, International Thomson Publishing, to host our web site free of charge. An agreement between the Society and Thomson was signed and provides for a two year period to see how things work out.

The second item of business completed was getting Scott Russell (University of Oklahoma) to serve as the webmaster for the Society. Scott has taken the idea of BSA web site from the preliminary stages to a very nice site that is loaded with information. Indeed, the site is an award winning effort, thanks to Scott. For those who have not looked at the site, it is well worth the minor effort. The entire program for these meetings is posted, along with Section pages and Society information.

- Charles P. Daghlian, Council Representative

Education Committee:

The committee prioritized three goals. The committee's announcement in Plant Science Bulletin (Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter 1996) generated interest in several of the projects.

Educational Resources on the BSA Web Page

GOAL: As a service to members and to biology teachers everywhere the Committee will publish links to plant biology educational resources on the BSA WWW page.

STATUS: Scott Russell has completely redesigned the BSA web page [] and is maintaining it. Several committees, including the Education Committee, have contributed toward this goal. There is a link to "Botanical Links"[] which takes you to a list of hundreds of resources for botanical research and teaching. The Education Committee has agreed to send Dr. Russell URL addresses of new resources to be added to this list. Also, the Teaching Section has links of interest to educators [ ~bquest/bsateach.html] SCOTT RUSSELL DESERVES ALL THE CREDIT FOR THIS. THE WWW PAGE IS A TRULY REMARKABLE ACHIEVEMENT FOR BSA.

Teacher Workshops

GOAL: We want to encourage BSA members to offer teacher workshops in plant biology, at national teachers' meetings and on college and university campuses, as a means of improving K-12 science education.

STATUS: We have asked committee members and BSA members at large to send us information on successful teacher workshop design and implementation so that this information can be shared with other members for implementation on their campuses. Rob Reinsvold at University of Northern Colorado has agreed to gather this information and then find an appropriate means of disseminating it, perhaps in a "Teacher Workshop Organizer's Kit." We are also considering the possibility of organizing a "Workshop on Workshops" for next year's meeting.

Several BSA members suggested that we offer workshops for the K-12 teachers at our annual meetings and invite teachers to attend. After much discussion, the consensus is that we will have little success in attracting teachers to BSA meetings because of the cost involved and an agenda of limited interest to them. Instead of bringing teachers to botanists, we need to take botanists to the teachers... at their own professional meetings. The problem with this is that university travel funds are limited and many BSA members would not get support from their universities for this kind of travel. Thus, we are proposing to Council

Motion: That the Council approves a sum, not to exceed ca $1500 (for travel, lodging, and registration fees) for BSA members to attend national, regional, or state meetings of organizations like the National Association of Biology Teachers and/or National Science Teachers Association for the purpose of presenting workshops on plant biology in the K-12 curriculum.

At the same time, we will approach NSF and/or other funding agencies to see if we can get a grant for this purpose. Rob and I already know of several members willing to do this. If the Council approves the expenditure, our committee would review such proposals from members and authorize the payments upon proof that the workshop had been presented.

Digitized Botanical Images

GOAL: To explore the possibility of digitizing the BSA's collection of +/-700 35mm slides, then to make the images available through a web page or CD-ROM or both.

BACKGROUND: The BSA owns a teaching slide collection of +/- 700 35 mm slides which are sold to members and non-members through the Business Office for a fee that is intended to cover the cost of copying the slides. This creates work for the Business Office, probably barely covers expenses, and the collection is largely unknown and unused by educators. The collection was assembled by the Teaching Section which voted several years ago to turn it over to the Business Office. At the business meeting of the Teaching Section on Tuesday we will ask their approval, in principle, of this project.

STATUS: We have received responses from several individuals offering to help with this project. They have expertise in digitization and storage of slide images: Ethel Stanley (Director of Field Testing, BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium, Dept. of Biology, Beloit College, WI), Laurent Meillier (BSA member, botanist for a wholesaler of botanical products in Long Beach, CA), Damon Waitt (Asst. Professor of Biology at Southwestern University, TX), and, especially, Thomas W. Jurik (Dept. of Botany, Iowa State University). We have exchanged a number of e mail messages but this is a complex subject with issues that are difficult to resolve. We wanted to meet here in Montreal but too few of us are attending this meeting. The discussion will continue by e-mail. However, before we proceed with the project, we would appreciate having the advice/consent of the Council:

Motion: Provided the Teaching Section concurs in the Education Committee's recommendation, the Council approves, in principle, digitizing the BSA teaching slide collection for "publication" on the BSA web page or on CD-ROM or both. A detailed plan for the project will be proposed by a subcommittee of the Education Committee and further action on the project must be considered by the Council.

Here, too, we plan to explore the possibility of outside funding from NSF and/or other funding agencies to underwrite the cost of digitizing and/or distributing the images. Until we develop a definite plan, the exact costs are unknown. Our goal would be to make the images available free (or at minimal cost) for educational use. One suggestion is to offer the slides, at lower resolution, free via our web page and then to publish them on CD-ROM at higher resolution, for sale (profit for BSA?!), to publishers and others.

Other Projects Considered by the Committee:

Ask a Botanist

GOAL: To establish and maintain a consulting service on the Internet that would assist students with their questions about plants.

STATUS: We had only one response to our notice in PSB until recently when Charles Daghlian asked me about the status of this project. Chuck has said he is not interested in taking the lead at this time but he and I will continue the dialogue. Again, there are many questions that are best debated and decided in a meeting. In the meantime, many students, professors, and teachers are using the "Plant-ed" listserve[] for this purpose. The only problem with relying on that listserve is that it was created to meet the needs of professors and teachers, not students. It is feared that many people will drop off the list if we start being bombarded with questions from students. See also Jonathan Monroe's article on Plant-ed in PSB,42(4): p. 109.

Publication of Plant Biology Laboratory Activities

GOAL: To publish hands-on, discovery-type plant biology exercises for use in schools as well as at colleges and universities.

STATUS: Darlene DeMason, as you know, drafted a format for such exercises but, to my knowledge, there has been little, if any, response. Committee members decided that this required an enormous effort in terms of gathering and editing the material, and opted to postpone action until some of our other goals are met. However, at our Committee meeting on Tuesday afternoon Gordon Uno will be reporting on his discussions with the National Association of Biology Teachers. NABT is interested in publishing, in cooperation with BSA, a collection of plant biology activities reprinted from The American Biology Teacher.

Expert Review of Plant Biology Manuscripts for Publishers

GOAL: To offer assistance to publishers who are seeking professional review of manuscripts for plant biology books.

STATUS: We received a request from Child's World, a publisher of children's science books, asking for someone who would review manuscripts for a series of children's books on ecology. The first manuscript, reviewed by Education Committee member Dan Gilmore, was "Evergreen Forests" written for grades 3-4. We have asked the publisher to note in the book, "Manuscript reviewed under auspices of the Education Committee of the Botanical Society of America by Dr. Dan Gilmore,....[followed by Dan's credentials.]" The publisher was very pleased with our prompt, positive response and intends to ask us for names of botanists willing to review other titles. The committee will encourage other publishers to use this service. While professional review of manuscripts is standard practice for college textbooks and reference works, it is not common in the field of children's science books except for post-publication reviews in Science Books and Films. We want to review before the book is in print.

- David W. Kramer, Chair

Election Committee Report

The Election Committee consisted of Christopher Haufler, Darleen DeMason, Linda Graham, Daniel Crawford, and Barbara Schaal, Chair. The membership was solicited by mail for nominations for the offices of President-Elect and Secretary. The nominees from the membership as well as those submitted by committee members were considered and a slate of two candidates for each office was determined by consensus. Candidates for President-Elect were Dr. Carol Baskin, University of Kentucky, and Dr. Judith Verbeke, University of Arizona. Candidates for Secretary were Dr. Pamela Soltis, Washington State University, and Dr. Peter Hoch, Missouri Botanical Garden. All members received ballots which were returned by mail. The results of the election are:

President-Elect: Carol Baskin
Secretary: Pamela Soltis

- Barbara A. Schaal, Past President

Esau Award Committee

Katherine Esau Award Committee members: 1996: Michael Christianson, Chair, Elizabeth Harris, William Friedman; 1997: Elizabeth Harris, Chair, William Friedman, Thomas Rost (unable to attend 1997 meetings) Judith Canne-Hilliker, substitute.

Twenty-one student papers were given, nine of which were in co-competition for the Mosely Award, and four of which were in co-competition for the Sharp Award. The Katherine Esau Award was presented to Kenneth M. Cameron for his paper entitled "Foliar architecture of the reticulate-veined vanilloid orchids." The paper presented documented an exhaustive comparative study of the leaf vasculature of each genus in the large clade of the vanilloid orchids. Reticulate venation in other monocot taxa was reviewed as well. The data presented were then placed in the larger context of the ongoing molecular studies being carried out by the author. Mr. Cameron gave his paper in a very professional and confident manner.

Mr. Cameron was presented with the Award at the BSA Banquet. Further proof of his outstanding research was demonstrated when he also won the ASPT student paper award for his other talk given in one of the systematics sessions.

Thirty-one papers are to be judged for the Katherine Esau Award, the most ever. Eight of the papers are in co-competition for the Canadian Botanical Society's Cinq-mars Award. Nine student papers are in co-competition for the Mosely Award.

Thomas Rost (UC Davis) was slated to be the new incoming committee member. However, since he is unable to attend the meetings this year because of his duties as an associate dean, a replacement was necessary. Judith Canne-Hilliker (University of Guelph in Guelph, Ontario), a BSA member in good standing, graciously offered to step in as a substitute judge on short notice. Tom Rost plans to fulfill the second and last years of his three-year tenure so a permanent replacement is not necessary.

Again, Jim Seago has done an excellent job scheduling the talks and grouping the student talks by subject matter for the convenience of the judges. With the most eligible student papers ever presented, it was indeed a monumental task.

- Elizabeth M. Harris, Chair

Mosely Award Committee


Article X, Section 4 (f): "Moseley Award" consisting of a chair appointed by the President and two other members, chosen by the President in consultation with the Development and Structural Section and Paleobotanical Section chairs, each serving three-year terms with one new member being appointed each year. The prize is awarded to a student who is the sole or senior author of a paper, orally presented in the Developmental and Structural Section or Paleobotanical Section of the annual meeting, that best advances our understanding of the plant anatomy and/or morphology of vascular plants within an evolutionary context.

1997 Committee

Ed Schneider (Santa Barbara Botanic Garden), Chair Jeff Osborn (Division of Science, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO) Pamela Diggle (Dept. EPO Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder (Larry Hufford, Washington State University has agreed to serve on the Moseley Committee in 1997-8, replacing Dr. Diggle)

Number of Papers to be Judged in 1997: Fifteen (15); eight (9) from Structural/Development; six (6) from the Paleobotanical section.

1996 Recipient

Ms. Ranessa Cooper, an undergraduate from Truman State University, for her paper entitled "Comparative Pollen Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Callitrichaceae".

1995 Recipient

Susana Magallon-Puebla, University of Chicago and Field Museum of Natural History "Floral remains of Hamamelidaceae from Campanian strata of Georgia". (First Recipient of the Moseley Award)

Action Items

Esau and Moseley Committees are meeting to ensure collaboration on judging and selection of awardees. Also Moseley Committee and Cookson Committees will discuss selections.

- Ed Schneider, Chair

Pelton Award Committee

Winslow Briggs has informed the Pelton Committee that there are sufficient funds in the Pelton Endowment held by the Conservation and Research Foundation (CRF) to make the Pelton Award at the 1998 AIBS meetings. It is the Committee's intention to request nominations for the 1998 award in an early Fall 1997 issue of Plant Science Bulletin and in an e-mail message to all members of the Developmental and Structural Section. The Committee is planning to submit the name of the selected n ominee to the CRF and the BSA Council by mid-Winter 1998.

The Committee would like to request the Council's opinion on one issue. We want to request that the Structural and Developmental Section sponsor a special presentation at the AIBS meetings by the Pelton Awardee, and we would like to know:

  1. whether or not the Council would approve of a Pelton Award presentation as a part of the BSA program, and if so,
  2. whether the award announcement and the seminar presentation should occur at the same meeting, or whether the announcement should be followed by a presentation in the succeeding year. Obviously, the former choice would require that the committee notify the nominee much earlier in the year than has been the customary practice. Your guidance on this issue is appreciated.
- Todd Cooke, Chair

Young Botanist Awards

The announcement soliciting nominations for the BSA young Botanists Awards was sent in a mailing to the membership and was printed in the Plant Science Bulletin. Nominations were due by March 1, 1997 and 36 nominations were received. An ad hoc committee was convened to evaluate the nominations. The committee was chaired by Barbara Schaal and had as additional members Walter Lewis, Washington University, and Joe Leverich, St. Louis University. Twenty five of the nominated students were awarded Certificates of Special Recognition and eleven students received Certificates of Achievement. Certificates were signed by President Crawford and mailed from the BSA office by the end of April. Letters were also sent to the nominating professors informing them of the student's success and thanking them for the nominations. Most student awardees received the certificates in time to be recognized during their University Graduation.

- Barbara A. Schaal, Past-President

Other News

The José Cuatrecasas Botanical Endowment

The Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian Institution is pleased to announce the establishment of the José Cuatrecasas Botanical Fund. This new international endowment honors the lifelong botanical work of Dr. José Cuatrecasas, a pioneering botanist. His research, especially in the flowering plant family Asteraceae, was devoted to the classification, biogeography, exploration, and ecology of plants of the paramo and subparamo regions of Andean South America.

The Cuatrecasas Botanical Fund will support significant research projects that emulate the spirit of the research of José Cuatrecasas. It will support projects within the NMNH Department of Botany and also support professional researchers and students from outside the Institution, especially from Andean South America, who wish to study at the United States National Herbarium in the Department of Botany and to conduct related field studies. Finally, the Fund will support an annual Cuatrecasas Lecture by a distinguished botanist.

The endowment will be administered by the Department of Botany and proposals for support will be reviewed by a panel of Smithsonian scientists and one extra-Smithsonian scientist. The results of projects supported by the Fund will be communicated to the botanical and wider biological communities through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Collections made during the course of these investigations will enhance the diversity of collections in the United States National Herbarium and relevant herbaria in the countries where the materials were collected.

The NMNH Department of Botany is a world­class research group of 18 scientists and more than 35 technical staff. In addition, an international array of research associates, collaborators and students work in close conjunction with the permanent staff. Curatorial responsibility for the United States National Herbarium, an internationally recognized collection, is a primary mission of the Department. The staff has worldwide research interests with particular emphasis on the New World tropics. Areas of special collection/research strength include the pteridophytes, Asteraceae, Poaceae, and a number of other angiosperm families. The United States National Herbarium collection consists of more than 4.5 million specimens, including nearly 100,000 type specimens. The most significant collections include those from the New World tropics, North America (especially from early exploration of the region), and Pacific islands (especially the Philippines, Hawaiian Islands and Micronesia).

Friends and colleagues of José Cuatrecasas and the Department of Botany are invited to contribute to this important endowment that will help perpetuate the innovative and pioneering botanical work that meant so much to José Cuatrecasas. Donations may be sent to the José Cuatrecasas Botanical Endowment, Smithsonian Institution, Department 0561, Washington, D.C. 20073-0561. Contributions from outside the United States should be in U.S. dollars. For further information concerning the Fund or the life and accomplishments of José Cuatrecasas, please contact Dr. Warren L. Wagner, Chairman, Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Ph. (202) 357-2534, Fax (202) 786-2563, or e-mail

FLAS: University of Florida Herbarium Address Change

The vascular plant collection of the University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS), a unit in the Department of Natural Sciences of the Florida Museum of Natural History, is moving from its present location in Rolfs Hall to Dickinson Hall on the campus of the University of Florida. The move is planned to begin in early September 1997 and the actual move will be completed by 1 December 1997. Unpacking should be completed by 1 March 1998. This move impacts only the vascular plant collection at this time.

Because of the move, the herbarium will be closed from 1 September 1997 to approximately 1 March 1998. For the most part, we will not be able to accept loan shipments to the herbarium during this time period, nor will we be able to ship loans out of the herbarium. We regret any inconvenience that this might cause the botanical community.

Progress on our move will be posted on our Web page at:

Please direct any inquiries to either the Keeper or the Collection Manager listed below at the Rolfs Hall address until 15 October 1997. After 15 October 1997, please use the new address at Dickinson Hall:

Dr. Norris H. Williams, Keeper, or Kent D. Perkins, Manager of the Collection
University of Florida Herbarium
209 Rolfs Hall
PO Box 110530 Gainesville
FL 32611-0530

University of Florida Herbarium
Florida Museum of Natural History
Dickinson Hall
PO Box 117800 Gainesville FL 32611-7800 Telephone: (352) 392-1767
FAX: (352)-392-1777

Editorial Committee for Volume 43
James D. Mauseth (1997)
Department of Botany
University of Texas
Austin, TX 78713
Allison A. Snow (1998)
Department of Plant Biology
Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210
Nickolas M. Waser (1999)
Department of Biology
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521
P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166
Vicki A. Funk (2001)
Department of Botany
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560


Form and Function


Could you include a brief message in the next PSB? I have been asked by my department to develop a course called Form and Function in Algae and Terrestrial Plants. The goal is to compare and contrast structural adaptations of diverse taxa for major physiological functions like photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, osmoregulation, translocation, modes of reproduction, as well as physical functions like upright growth and branching. There are some obvious things to consider but I could really benefit from the experiences of BSA members who might have relevant global or parochial ideas. The course will be offered next spring so I have some lead time. No hint or idea is too small!

- David T. Webb
Department of Botany, University of Hawaii
Honolulu HI 96789-2279
tel (808) 956-8028

Estudios Botánicos en el Sur del Ecuador


As a member of the Botanical Society of America, I read the Plant Science Bulletin. For a two year period, I am stationed by the Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus in Denmark at the Department of Botany, Universidad Nacional de Loja in Ecuador on an Enhancement of Local Research Capacity Project financed by The Danish Agency for International Development. In the Department in Loja we just published the second edition of the book Estudios Botánicos en el Sur del Ecuador, written by the founder of the Herbario LOJA - Reinaldo Espinosa, Dr. Reinaldo Espinosa. Volume one was first published in 1948 and volume two in 1949. Since this book has not received the international recognition that it deserved in the first edition, we decided to publish a second edition in colaboration with the Herbarium AAU. For the moment I am trying to advertise the book as widely as possible, and would like to send you a copy for review or listing in the Plant Science Bulletin. Would you therefore be interested in receiving this book ?

- Bente B. Klitgaard, PhD
Herbario LOJA, UNL, Casilla 11-01-249,
Loja, Ecuador
Fax/phone: (00 593 7) 570 701

Announcements, Nominations and Applications, Part I

In Memoriam

William Raymond Philipson

The Botanical Society has been notified that Corresponding Member William Raymond Philipson passed away earlier this year. A note from Professor Philipson's widow is reprinted below.

Oak Tree Cottage
17 Jellicoe St.
New Zealand


The Secretary,

Botanical Society of America

Dear Sir,

It is with deep regret that I write with the sad news that my husband, Professor William Raymond Philipson, died suddenly on 28th March.

As he had been a Corresponding Member of the Society for many years, you will be aware of his international standing & his botanical achievements.

Yours sincerely,
Melva N. Philipson


The grande dame of American botany -- indeed, of botany worldwide -- Katherine Esau, died on June 4, 1997, in Santa Barbara, California. With her passing, the biological community has lost one of the truly distinguished botanists of all time. An era in the discipline of plant anatomy has come to an end.

Katherine Esau was born on April 3, 1898, in the City of Yekatherinoslav, now called Dnepropetrovsk, in Ukraine. Dr. Esau's family was Mennonite, descendants of German Mennonites invited to Russia by Katherine the Great to promote agriculture on the steppes of the Ukraine.

Dr. Esau, her parents, and her brother left Russia for Germany in 1918, during the Russian revolution, interrupting her schooling after one year at the Golitsin Women's Agricultural College in Moscow. In Germany, she registered in the Agricultural College of Berlin. After graduation in 1922, she and her parents immigrated to the United States, and settled in Reedly, California, the location of a Mennonite community. Her initial employment in the U.S. was with the Sloan Seed Company in Oxnard, California. She then moved to the Spreckels Sugar Company, in the Salinas Valley, where she bred strains of sugarbeets for resistance to the virus causing curly-top disease. At that time, she began to consider continuing her education.

In 1928, Dr. Esau enrolled in the College of Agriculture at Davis, where she investigated the transmission of the curly-top disease and its effect on the phloem. Dr. Esau received her Ph.D. in 1932, and remained at Davis to become a Professor of Botany. In 1963, two years before she was to retire, she moved to Santa Barbara to continue her collaborative research on the phloem with Vernon I. Cheadle, who had accepted the position of Chancellor of the Santa Barbara campus. She remained actively engaged in research for 24 more years.

 Throughout her career, Dr. Esau continued research on phloem both in relation to the effects of the phloem-limited viruses upon plant structure and development and to the unique structure of the sieve tube as a conduit of food. Very early, Dr. Esau demonstrated an exceptional ability for attacking basic problems, and she set new standards of excellence for the investigation of anatomical problems in the plant sciences.

In 1953, Dr. Esau's enduring classic Plant Anatomy - known worldwide as the "Bible of Plant Anatomy" - was published. This was followed by Anatomy of Seed Plants, in 1960. Both of these books have been published in several languages, including Russian, and have extended her influence on the quality of instruction of plant anatomy into classrooms all over the world. The developmental aspects of her studies matured into Vascular Differentiation in Plants (1965), and her interest in virus-plant host relations into Plants, Viruses, and Insects (1961) and Viruses in Plant Hosts (1968).

Dr. Esau served as President of the Botanical Society of America in 1951, and in 1956 was one of the original recipients of the Merit Award of the Society at its Fiftieth Anniversary Meeting, which was held at the University of Connecticut. The Certificate of Merit read: "Katherine Esau, plant anatomist and histologist, for her numerous contributions on tissue development of vascular plants and in particular for her outstanding studies on the structure, development, and evolution of phloem." Many more honors were to come her way.

I first learned of Dr. Esau in 1953, when I was enrolled in Dr. David A. Kribs' plant anatomy class at Penn State. I was working for an M.S. in Botany. During the first class meeting, Dr. Kribs mentioned that, unfortunately, Dr. Esau's Plant Anatomy book would not be available in time to use for the class. (He and others were anxiously awaiting the arrival of the "Bible.") Instead, we would use Introduction to Plant Anatomy by Eames and MacDaniels. Plant Anatomy arrived to great excitement about three-quarters of the way through the semester. By then I had heard Dr. Esau and her work mentioned a great many times. It was obvious that she was someone quite special. The following year, in 1954, during a seminar that dealt partly with phloem, I was hooked. I decided to pursue the Ph.D. in Botany and to work on phloem. When I told Dr. Kribs of my plan he said: "Then there is only one place to go, Davis, to work with Katherine Esau." I certainly knew who Dr. Esau was, but where was Davis? On the basis of a letter from Dr. Kribs, Dr. Esau invited me to work with her.

When I first saw Dr. Esau, she was riding a bicycle, which she did regularly to and from the Botany Department. (At that time, Botany was housed in a converted garage.) I had an appointment with her. Not knowing whether the person I had seen was Dr. Esau, I waited until after she entered the building to approach her office door. Behind that door I found a friendly individual with a ready smile and a keen sense of humor. This person I had envisioned on a pedestal (not a bicycle) quickly put me at ease. During that first meeting, it was decided that I would do my Ph.D. research on the seasonal development of the phloem of the pear tree - a parallel study to her work on the grapevine.

Dr. Esau was unselfish with her time. For the first two years, we met almost weekly to examine the newest slides I had prepared from the tissue collections. Sitting side-by-side, each of us examining the sections with separate microscopes, we would discuss our findings. Dr. Esau would explain her observations and interpretations, and I would soak it all in. What a wonderful way to learn, and from the very best person possible. As I was weaned, our sessions became less frequent, but she always made herself available when I had something to discuss with her. The next most intensive period came with the writing of the thesis - another learning experience.

Dr. Esau was a superb teacher, in part because she genuinely liked students. She never failed to reply to a note or letter from a student, offering encouragement and/or praise. Her course in plant anatomy was exceptional. Although she served as major professor for only 15 doctoral students, there are numerous botanists, including many who have never met her but have studied her papers and books, who consider themselves her students. She instilled in her students an appreciation of the precision and rigor that go into truly excellent studies of plant structure and development. In every aspect of her work she set new standards of excellence. I can hear her saying: "Ray, one can never be too careful."

Katherine Esau was the personification of excellence and integrity. Despite her numerous successes and many honors, she remained modest and close to her Mennonite roots. Some of her honors include honorary degrees from Mills College, Oakland, California (1962) and the University of California (1966) and election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Swedish Royal Academy of Science.

Her career has no parallel. In 1989, she was awarded the President's National Merit of Science. The citation accompanying the medal reads: "In recognition of her distinguished service to the American community of plant biologists, and for excellence of her pioneering research, both basic and applied, on plant structure and development, which has spanned more than six decades; for her superlative performance as an educator, in the classroom and through her books; for the encouragement and inspiration she has given to a legion of young, aspiring plant biologists; and for providing a special role model for women in science."

- Ray F. Evert

Editor's note: A memorial article on Dr. Esau and her contributions to Botany will appear in a forthcoming issue of AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY.


It is with much regret that I report that David Bierhorst died on May 19. As all of us know, David had a distinguished career as a developmental and evolutionary biologist. David was on the faculty of the University of Virginia, Cornell University and the University of Massachusetts. He is best known for his pioneering research into the structure and development of gametophytes and sporophytes of ferns and fern allies; as well as his seminal contribution of the creative text Morphology of Vascular Plants that was published in 1971.

Although I never met David Bierhorst, last year I telephoned him at his home in Louisiana to inquire about aspects of gametophyte structure. A neighbor answered the telephone and reported that David was in the hospital for major heart surgery. One week later, having just been discharged from the hospital, David called me at my office to discuss, at considerable length, gametophyte development. It was a wonderful conversation. Although retired, David's devotion to botany and his willingness to share his knowledge were as strong as ever.

David is survived by his wife, Millie, two children and seven grandchildren.

- William (Ned) Friedman

Editor's Note: Reprinted above is a note sent to the members of the Developmental and Structural Section by Ned Friedman, University of Colorado. An obituary article on Dr. Bierhorst is is scheduled for publication in the AMERICAN FERN JOURNAL later this year.

Announcements, Nominations and Applications, Part II

Funding Opportunities

Bullard Fellowships in Forest Research -- Harvard University

Each year Harvard University awards a limited number of Bullard Fellowships to individuals in biological, social, physical and political sciences to promote advance study, research or integration of subjects pertaining to forested ecosystems. The fellowships which include stipends up to $30,000, are intended to promote individuals in mid-career with an opportunity to utilize the resources and to interact with personnel in any department within Harvard University in order to develop their own scientific and professional growth. In recent years, Bullard Fellows have been associated with Harvard Forest, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and the J. F. Kennedy School of Government and have worked in areas of ecology, forest management, policy and conservation. Fellowships are available for periods ranging from four months to one year and can begin any time in the year. Applications from international scientists, women and minorities are encouraged. Fellowship are not intended for graduate students or recent post-doctoral candidates. Further information may be obtained from: Committee on the Charles Bullard Fund for Forest Research, Harvard University, Harvard Forest, P.O. Box 68, Petersham, MA 01366 USA. Annual deadline for applications is February 1.

American Philosophical Society Grants

The American Philosophical Society makes grants towards the cost of scholarly research in all areas of knowledge except those where support by government or corporate enterprise is more appropriate. Projects likely to culminate in scholarly publications are preferred; projects in the creative or performing arts, for the general readership, and educational materials for classroom use are not eligible.

Grants cover travel to the objects of research, purchase of photoreproductions of documents, and consumable professional supplies not available at the applicant's institution. The Society makes no grants for study, salary replacement, travel to conferences, consultation with other scholars, assistance with data entry, publication or translation, or the purchase of permanent equipment, telephone calls or stationery.

Eligibility: Applicants are expected to have held the doctorate for at least one year. Foreign nationals applying from abroad must state precisely what objects of research, only available in the United States, need to be consulted.

Amount of award: averages $3,000; $6,000 maximum. In accordance with federal regulations, a 1099 miscellaneous income form will be issued for all grants that exceed $600.

Deadlines: March 1 for decisions by mid-June, October 1 for decisions by mid-January, and December 1 for decisions by mid-March.

Obtaining forms: Written requests for forms must indicate eligibility, specify the area of research, and state the proposed use of grant funds. Include a self-addressed mailing label. Telephone requests for forms cannot be honored. Write to Committee on Research, American Philosophical Society, 150 South Independence Mall East, Philadelphia PA 19106.

Questions concerning the eligibility of a project or applicant are accepted at (215) 440-3429 (M, T, Th, F 9-5; W 9-1) or via e-mail to

Timothy C. Plowman Latin American Research Award

The Botany Department at The Field Museum invites applications for the 1998 Timothy C. Plowman Latin American Research Award. The award of $1000.00 is designed to assist students and young professionals to visit the Field Museum and use our extensive economic botany and systematic collections. Individuals from Latin America and projects in the field of ethnobotany or systematics of economically important plant groups will be given special consideration.

Applicants interested in the award should submit their curriculum vitae and a detailed letter describing the project for which the award is sought. The information should be forwarded to the Timothy C. Plowman Award Committee, Department of Botany, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 2496 USA and received no later than 30 September 1997. Announcement of the recipient will be made no later than 1 December 1997.

Anyone wishing to contribute to The Timothy C. Plowman Latin American Research Fund, which supports this award, may send their checks, payable to The Field Museum, c/o Department of Botany, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605-2496 USA. Make certain to indicate the intended fund.

For more information, contact Susan Hamnik, Administrative Assistant, Dept. of Botany, The Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive Chicago, IL 60605 Phone: (312) 922-9410 ext. 314 Fax: (312) 427-2530 email:

Call for Nominations

Jeannette Siron Pelton Award

The Pelton Award Committee is actively seeking nominations for the 1998 Jeanette Siron Pelton Award in Plant Morphogenesis. This prestigious award including $1,000 prize and certificate is given to noteworthy individuals in recognition of outstanding contributions to the study of plant morphogenesis. The particular subdiscipline of the nominee's research may include molecular biology, cell biology, and/or organismal biology. Previous award winners are: R.H. Wetmore (1969), C.W. Wardlaw (1970), P.B. Green (1972), P.K. Hepler (1975), B.E.S. Gunning (1978), L.J. Feldman (1980), T.J. Cooke (1983), T. Sachs (1985 ), S.D. Russell (1988), E.M. Lord (1989), R.S. Poethig (1993), E.M. Meyerowitz (1994), and S. Hake (1996). Investigators under 40 years of age are generally, but not always, given considerable preference. The award is not restricted as to sex, nationality, or society affiliation of the recipient. A nominating letter should describe the nature of the nominee's contributions to the field of plant morphogenesis and include the full citations of key papers or books that have resulted in the nomination. Please send the nomination before 1 December 1997 to: Todd Cooke, Chair, Pelton Award Committee, Department of Plant Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (E-mail:

The 1998 Jesse M. Greenman Award

The Greenman Award, a certificate and a cash prize of $1,000, is presented each year by the Missouri Botanical Garden. It recognizes the paper judged best in vascular plant or bryophyte systematics based on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. Papers published during 1997 are now being accepted for the 30th annual award, which will be presented in the summer of 1998. Reprints of such papers should be sent to Dr. P. Mick Richardson, Greenman Award Committee, Missouri Botanical Garden, P. O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A. In order to be considered for the 1998 award, reprints must be received by 1 June 1998.

Positions Available

Plant Cell Biology/Physiology
Truman State University

Truman State University invites applications for a tenure-track position, at the Assistant or Associate Professor level, starting August 1998. Teaching and research are mutually supportive activities at Truman; candidates should be strongly committed both to teaching and to developing an active research program involving undergraduates and M.S. students. Research laboratory and start-up funds will be provided. The successful candidate will teach a sophomore-level Cell Biology course and an upper-level Plant Physiology course, as well as participate in introductory biology courses. Research background and interests should address questions in cell biology or physiology using plant systems.

Truman has been ranked in Money magazine's top ten best college buys for the past five years. Truman is Missouri's only statewide, highly selective, public undergraduate liberal arts and sciences university. We are nationally recognized for our innovative assessment program and commitment to a broad-based liberal arts and sciences education. Students benefit from a university-wide 16:1 student/faculty ratio and opportunities to work closely with faculty conducting research. For more information about the University and the Biology Program, please visit our Home Page at

Candidates must possess a Ph.D., or have a targeted completion date, by August 1998. Complete applications include a curriculum vita, statements of teaching philosophy and research goals, all undergraduate and graduate transcripts, and three recent letters of reference. All application materials should be sent directly to: Dr. David R. Howard, Division of Science, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501 (816-785-7500). We will start reviewing completed applications on October 6, 1997. Truman is an AA/EOE institution committed to cultural diversity and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Plant Ecologist, Plant Taxonomist, and Lecturer in Biology
University of Northern Colorado

Applicants are sought for two full-time, tenure-track faculty positions at the Assistant Professor level. A third position for a lecturer in biology that is full-time, non-promotable, and annually renewable based upon performance also is available. Positions are contingent upon adequate funding from the state legislature and final approval by the Board of Trustees with start dates of August 19, 1998. The botany positions include instruction, scholarship, and service responsibilities. Advising and directing student research for undergraduates and graduates is required. Scholarship in content or content-based education and grant writing is expected. The plant ecologist may teach courses in general and plant ecology, and introductory biology. The plant taxonomist may teach courses in plant taxonomy, evolution, vascular plant anatomy/morphology, and introductory biology. Both positions may teach other biology courses in areas of expertise. The instructional load for the lecturer in biology will be 12 equated hours in introductory biology, human biology, anatomy/physiology and other biology/botany/zoology undergraduate courses in areas of expertise in addition to advising of undergraduate students. Application deadline is October 15, 1997. Please submit a statement of teaching philosophy, research experience and plans, three letters of recommendation, at least one addressing teaching ability, or for more information contact: Curt M. Peterson, Professor and Chair, Department of Biological Sciences, 501 20th St., University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO 80639 [e-mail: cmpeter @ bentley . univnorthco . edu; (970) 351-2650; FAX: (970) 351-2335; UNC home page at]. The University of Northern Colorado is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Community/Landscape Environmental Ecologist
The University of Western Ontario

Applications are invited for a tenure-track appointment at the Assistant Professor level in the general area of Plant Ecology, with specialization in communities and/or landscapes. This is an inter-disciplinary appointment in Environmental Sciences between the Departments of Geography and Plant Sciences. The successful applicant will have expertise in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and applied issues in environmental conservation. Expertise in numerical data analysis will be an asset. The appointee is expected to develop a vigorous, inter-disciplinary and innovative research program.

We require a Ph.D. and appropriate post-doctoral training or equivalent experience in a research-oriented environment, a proven research record including publication in refereed journals, the ability to work with others, and demonstrated evidence of interest, ability, and enthusiasm to teach at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in the general area of Environmental Science.

Applicants should provide a current curriculum vitae, a statement of research and teaching interests, copies of recent significant papers and the names and addresses of three referees, together with their E-Mail, FAX, and telephone numbers. Send to Dr. R. A. Haines, Associate Dean, Faculty of Science, Western Science Centre, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B7

Information about the departments may be accessed on: and

Consideration of applications will begin November 1, 1997 and continue until the position is filled. Starting date will be July 1, 1998, but an earlier start date is negotiable.

Positions are subject to budget approval. In accordance with Canadian Immigration requirements, this advertisement is directed to Canadian Citizens and Permanent Residents of Canada. The University of Western Ontario is committed to employment equity, welcomes diversity in the workplace, and encourages applications from all qualified individuals including women, members of visible minorities, aboriginal persons, and persons with disabilities.

Plant Biology
University of Utah

The Department of Biology at the University of Utah seeks to add two faculty in plant biology to complement and strengthen our existing program in plant sciences. The search will be divided into two broad categories: molecular and cellular plant biology and organismal plant biology. Individuals whose interests span these two areas are particularly welcome. The preferred rank is at the Assistant or Associate Professor levels and positions are available beginning July 1, 1998.

The existing plant biology faculty include strengths in cell biology, developmental biology, genetics, photosynthesis, water relations, and ecology. The successful candidates are expected to strengthen the research capacity of plant sciences in a broad sense, while complementing existing programs. More information about plant biology and the department is available through the internet at

Interested applicants should send to the most appropriate search committee listed below: a curriculum vitae, a statement which includes both research and teaching interests, and names of three individuals who can evaluate the candidate's research. The search will remain open until the positions are filled, but we anticipate beginning to review completed applications on November 1, 1997.

      Darryl Kropf, Molecular and Cellular Plant Biology Search, or

      Jim Ehleringer, Organismal Plant Biology Search

      Department of Biology

      University of Utah

      Salt Lake City UT 84112

The University of Utah is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer

Symposia, Conferences and Meetings

XIII International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry
21-27 September 1997

XIIlth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEBXIII) "Matter and Energy Fluxes in the Anthropocentric Environment." September 21-27, 1997, Monopoli (Bari), Italy. Contact person: Prof. N. Senesi, Instituto di Chemica Agraria, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 - Bari, Italy. Tel. +39.80.5442853, fax +39.80.5442813, e-mail

Brassica 1997
23-27 September 1997

The ISHS Symposium on Brassicas and the Tenth Crucifer Genetics Workshop are scheduled 23-27 September 1997 at Rennes, France. Brassica 1997 is sponsored by the International Society for Horticultural Science, the Crucifer Genetics Cooperative, Institut National de la Recherche Agrononiique, and Ecole Nationale Supérièure Agronomique de Rennes. For information, contact Secretariat Brassica 1997, ISHS Symposium on Brassicas/Tenth Crucifer Genetics Workshop, Ecole Nationale Supérièure Agronomique de Rennes, Dr. Grégoirenomas, Science du Végétal, 65 Rue de Saint Brieuc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex, FRANCE, Telephone (33) 99 28 54 76, Telefax (33) 99 28 54 80, e-mail

IOS Inter-Congress
25-29 September 1997

The 7th Inter-Congress of the International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS) will be held at The Huntington Botanical Garden, San Marino, CA on 25-29 September 1997. It will be held in conjunction with the 14th Huntington Succulent Symposium. For further, information, contact Dr. E.F. Anderson, IOS Secretary, Desert Botanical Garden, 1201 N. Galvin Parkway, Phoenix, AZ 85008. Telephone: (602)941-1225, fax: (602) 481-8124; e-mail:

Plant Evolution and Domestication
26-27 September 1997

Indiana University will hold a weekend symposium in honor of Dr. Charles Heiser's prominent contributions to Botany during his 50 years at IU. The symposium is entitled "Plant Evolution and Domestication," and will take place Friday evening, September 26 and all day Saturday, September 27. Speakers include Greg Anderson, John Doebley, Jeff Doyle, Don Levin, Barbara Pickersgill, Charles Rick, Loren Rieseberg, Doug Soltis, and Herb Wagner. Registration fees are $75.00 for regular participants and $25.00 for students. For further information contact Angi Bailey or Jennifer Jones, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 474056801. Phone: (812) 855-6705, email:

Plant Population Genetics Symposium
Chicago Botanic Garden
30 October 1997

The 1997 Janet Meakin Poor Research Symposium titled "Plant Population Genetics, Bridging the Gap Between Research and Stewardship" will be held October 30, 1997 at the Chicago Botanic Garden in Glencoe, IL.

The symposium is intended to provide an overview of current research in the field of plant population genetics including inbreeding and outbreeding depression, relationship between reproductive biology and population genetics, and techniques for measuring genetic diversity. The symposium will also focus on the role of genetics in restoration projects and rare plant recovery as well as other connections between research and stewardship in the field of population genetics.

The invited speakers include Donald Waller, Mary Jo Godt, Barbara Schaal, Jeffery Karron, Michele Dudash, Jim Reinartz, Marlin Bowles, and Larry Stritch.

The fee to attend the Plant Population Genetics Symposium is $69 for Garden members and $86 for nonmembers. For further information or to register by phone with credit card, please call the Education Registrar at (847) 835-8261.

A post conference opportunity is being offered titled From Bison to Buffalo Grass: The Genetics of Landscape Restoration. This conference on October 31, is being presented by Openlands Project, the U.S. Forest Service, and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources.

II International Congress of Ethnobotany
12-17 October 1997

The Autonomous University of Yucatan is organizing the "II International Congress of Ethnobotany 1997" in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico from October 12th to the 17th 1997. The organizers have posted the official notice requirements on the Internet (WWW)(URL): (English) (Spanish)

Deadline for the abstracts reception is June 15. For further information, contact José Salvador Flores Guido, M. Sc. ,Congress Organizing Committee

You can also contact us at the following addresses:

Pollen and Spores: Morphology and Biology
6-9 July 1998

This is the fourth in an occasional series of palynological conferences organized by the Linnean Society Palynology Specialist Group (LSPSG) in collaboration with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Natural History Museum, London. The previous conferences were: The Evolutionary Significance of the Exine (1974); Pollen and Spores: Form and Function (1985) and Pollen and Spores: Patterns of Diversification (1990). The conference is timed to coincide with the retirement from Kew of Keith Ferguson, founder and first Secretary of the LSPSG (1974-1998). There will be a mixture of invited and contributed papers and posters on the following topics: Pollen development; Anther and tapeturn; Pollen-pollinator interactions; Pollen-stigma interactions; pollen morphology in systematics and evolution; Ultrastructure (fossil and living groups); Pre-Cretaceous palynology; Cretaceous palynology; Tertiary palynology; Quaternary palynology; Pollen and archaeology; and Preparation and techniques. The proposed registration free will be around 130 sterling with reduced rates for students. Registration forms will be included with the second circular. For more information, contact Lisa von Schlippe, Conference Administrator, Royal BotanicGardens,Kew,Richmond,Surrey,TW9 3AB, fax 44-0181-332-5176, e-mail:

Tenth Wildland Shrub Symposium
12-14 August 1998

The Shrub Research Consortium in concert with the Great Basin Environmental Education Center is sponsoring the Tenth Wildland Shrub Symposium, August 12-14, 1998 at Snow College, Ephraim, Utah. The symposium theme is Shrubland Ecotones. There will be a mid-symposium field trip to the Great Basin Experimental Range and to hybrid zones in Salt Creek in the Uinta National Forest. Contributed papers and posters on succession within and between communities; biodiversity; the role of boundaries in the biology, management, and restoration of various shrubland communities and their interfaces with other communities; hybrid zones; and other shrubland biology subjects are invited. The proceeding will be published by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. If you would like to present a paper, send a title and abstract (² 200 words) to Dr. E. D. McArthur, Shrub Sciences Laboratory, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 735 North 500 East, Provo UT 84606 by January 15, 1998 (tel. (801) 377-5717, e-mail /S=E.MCARTHUR/OU1=S22@MHS-FSWA.ATTMAIL.COM). To receive pre-registration materials and additional information please contact: Dave Lanier, Great Basin Environmental Education Center, 150 East College Avenue, Ephraim, UT 84627 (tel. (801) 283-7261, e-mail

Sixth International Mycological Congress
23-28 August 1998

The Sixth International Mycological Congress -- IMC 6 is scheduled to take place from August 23-28, 1998 in Jerusalem at the ICC Jerusalem International Convention Center. The Congress Program encompasses a wide array of themes structured of symposia sessions and workshops, daily plenary lectures, social activities, and a special program for accompaning persons. For further information please contact: Congress Secretariat, P.O. Box 50006, Tel Aviv 61500, Israel. Tel: 972 3 5140014, Fax: 972 3 5175674/514007. E-mail: for Compuserve users: ccmail:MYCOL at Kenes; for Internet users: Information on the Sixth International Mycological Congress may be found on: the WWW at:

XVI International Botanical Congress
1-7 August 1999

The XVI International Botanical Congress will be held in St. Louis, Missouri at the America's Center on 1-7 August 1999. This promises to be a major scientific event, and marks the first time the IBC has been held in the United States since 1969 in Seattle. The Secretariat has a web site up and running ("") For further information, contact the XVI International Botanical Congress, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166-0299, USA; tel: (314) 577-5175; fax: (314) 577-9589; e-mail:

Book Reviews

In this Issue:

Book Reviews: Conservation Biology

The Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi Kaye, T.N., A. Liston, R.M. Love, D.L. Luoma, R.J. Meinke, and M.V. Wilson, eds. 1997. ISBN 0-9656852-0-9 (paper US$25) 296 pp. Native Plant Society of Oregon, 804 Jefferson Ave., LaGrande, Oregon 97850 - The Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi is a delightful compendium of papers organized by the editors into four broad areas: 1) conservation and management of native plants, 2) restoration of native plants and communities, and two sections devoted to the ecology, biogeography, and systematics of vascular plants, bryophytes, and fungi. The book accurately represents the activities, ideas, and efforts of researchers and managers who presented papers at a November 1995 symposium centered on Oregon's native flora, but its scope is sufficiently broad to be of considerable interest to those contemplating taxonomic studies, designing conservation programs, or seeking information on specific taxa (e.g., the lichen Peltigera, ectomycorrhizal diversity, Erigeron, and even macrobenthic marine algae). In short, there is something for everyone, both readers focused on species biology, and ecologists interested in plant-animal interactions, demography, seed dormancy and seed predation, and habitat management for butterflies. A quick scan of the table of contents will decide its relevance to one's own work. For a bird's eye view, approximately 10%, 24%, 34%, and 32% articles dealt primarily with physiology, ecology, systematics, or conservation and management. Although some authors have published significant studies in widely circulated journals, others present data previously available only in unpublished reports of public and private agencies. Thus the book is an excellent guide to published research, as well as a source of new and useful information. The comments below illustrate the book's diversity, describe a few noteworthy studies, and try to draw the reader's attention to aspects that might otherwise be overlooked. Many papers emphasize the need for more data and suggest avenues for future research.

Sections I and II (20 papers), plus a few papers in section III, focus on conservation and restoration, including "hot topics" such as the potential for genetic swamping of rare plants via hybridization (e.g., Wolf's evening primrose). Topics range from descriptive or experimental studies to comparative theoretical treatments of the matrix projection programs used to track plant demography (Greenlee & Kaye). Several other papers were of particular interest: 1) the paired studies (Wilson et al., Schultz) that detail the complex inter-relationships among plants, the rare Fendler's Blue butterfly, and various eco-political and pragmatic aspects of habitat/species management; and 2) the elegant study in which Jules was able to link habitat fragmentation and demographic patterns in Trillium (i.e., by excavating and aging the rhizomes in forest fragments of different sizes). On a more practical note, Youtie and others describe ways in which volunteers aid plant conservation efforts in the area of weed control. In addition, Guerrant highlights the important and pioneering work of the first private U. S. seed bank for rare plants. He does readers an additional service by defining appropriate off-site use of these rare plants in the sometimes controversial arena of reintroduction and augmentation programs.

Most papers in sections III and IV (21 papers total) have a predominant taxonomic or ecological orientation in relation to the Oregon flora, but are as varied as the definitional criteria for a RED list of macrofungi, studies of nickel localization in serpentine hyperaccumulators, and treatments of the biogeography and systematics of Astragalus and Northwest coastal lichens. Wilson provides an extensive key and photos of Oregon Peltigera, but most other papers lack keys, opting instead for cladograms, descriptive text, or tables (e.g., a notable example likely to be used extensively within the region is B. Wilson's method for differentiating difficult native fescues). In a successful but very different approach, Lyons-Weiler and Tausch employ cladistic methods to help us understand patterns of variability in species diversity. Other useful tidbits include numerous current and historical literature searches (e.g. on hawthorns), Rosentreter's interesting lore about how the lichen "manna" purportedly helped both Alexander's army and the Israelites to avoid starvation, and the excellent appendices on algae and seagrasses, which also underscore the need for more scientific study of under-represented groups. Readers will likely enjoy Silletts' description of the epiphytic cyanolichens: these occur in forests of varied ages, but persist only in old growth sites as a result of the differing canopy microclimate and more limited vertical dispersal in younger stands. Chambers urges us to remember how important plant distributions, ploidy, and alpha taxonomy are as a baseline for investigating such ecological, genetic, and/or evolutionary questions.

In general, the book is an excellent, diverse guide to published research, as well as a source of new and useful information. Some authors have published significant studies in widely circulated journals, but others present data previously available only in unpublished reports of public and private agencies. Thus while one of the strengths of the book is its diversity, a corollary is that its content varies extensively in scientific caliber and style, methodological detail and use of current references, attention to well-edited prose, effective use of statistics (e.g., compare papers by Levine vs Luoma et al.), and consistency of figures and tables. For example, the colloquialisms in Ertter's paper (e.g., "boils down to," and plants that "have been causing headaches"), and a few logical slips that reverse the intended meaning, are all somewhat distracting. However, the important point of her paper is that we should indeed continue to seek better ways of designing protocols for taxa that exhibit clines or "intermediate" patterns of variability. Moreover, while Imper's papers set an excellent precedent for generating effective conservation management tools for species biology, the small figures are somewhat difficult to read. Yet overall the book has remarkably few publication errors, and photos usually reproduced very well (e.g., SEM photos in Gisler and Meinke). However, a more lasting binding process in the future might prevent the loss of pages already evident in my copy.

In summary, Kaye et al. effectively deliver what is promised in the title and foreword ó a summary of ongoing research, both applied and basic, that is tied to conserving native plant biodiversity. Thus, although Oregon and Pacific coast elements receive special attention, scientists and conservation managers in all regions will truly appreciate the breadth of current topics discussed within the book's covers. I'm certainly glad to have a copy on my bookshelf! - Susan R. Kephart, Department of Biology, Willamette University, Salem, OR 97301

Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. Briggs, J.D., and J. H. Leigh. 1996. ISBN 0-643-05798-6 (paper US$44.95 ) 466pp. CSIRO Publishing, P.O. Box 1139 (150 Oxford St.), Collingwood, Victoria 3066, Australia - Any non-Australian botanist who has visited Australia has been fascinated and enthralled by the largely endemic and unusual sclerophyllous flora, which is perhaps best epitomized by the genera of Eucalyptus and phyllodinous Acacia (Barlow 1981). Although this large tome perhaps fails to capture such interest for those unfamiliar with this flora, it is nevertheless an important contribution to the conservation of Australia's plants. The book contains the most recent revision of the Rare or Threatened Australian Plant (ROTAP) list which assesses "the conservation status of Australia's flora from a national perspective" and provides the most up to date information compared to other legal lists that are less frequently modified. It documents a total of 5031 taxa which represent about 22.9% of the estimated 22,000 Australian native plants (not including the 91 taxa from the Norfolk, Cocos (Keeling), and Christmas island territories). The magnitude of this task is reflected in the 330 people cited for contributing to the work. Given the enormity of compiling this information, it is not surprising that ecological and biological information is not included (see Cropper (1993) for details about the ecology, monitoring, and conservation of rare Australian plants).

The introduction places this current list in context with previous ROTAP and other compilations. The next section includes significant changes that have been made to list. Most significantly the list now includes subspecies and varieties, which accounts for 25% of the increase in species since the 1988 ROTAP list. The third and fourth sections contain detailed information about the list coding system, which includes taxonomic, geographic distribution, and conservation status information. Taxonomic information is based on the Flora of Australia Project and includes family, genus, species, subspecies or variety, authority, name and locality for subspecies, and whether the taxonomy is doubtful. Conservation codes include distribution category (known from 1 collection only, range <100km or range >100km), conservation status (presumed extinct, endangered, vulnerable, rare, and poorly known, plus an additional code for reserved in at least one population in a National Park or other conservation reserve), and size class of all reserved populations (> or < 1000 plants or not known). Geographic information includes state or territory, region of occupance, whether the taxa is in a reserve, size class of population in reserve, whether it is extinct in that region, and name and type of reserve. Short abstracts of 6 taxa illustrate how the taxonomic, geographic, and conservation codes relate to known information. What I like is that you get an indication of how well and where a species is protected in National Parks and reserves. On the other hand, as the authors point out, it may be presumptuous to equate an occurrence in a reserve with protection.

The list is in three sections, a complete continental list, lists by state, and lists by territory. The first and third lists are in alphabetical order by family, genus, and species and the second by genus and species. Family and genera indices for the continent wide list make it easy to locate genera and respectively summarize, 1) the number of genera and species included and 2) the number of subspecies, varieties, described/undescribed species, total, and doubtful taxa.

The section about conservation statistics is perhaps the most important and interesting because it relates the trends to conservation needs and summarizes what is known about Australian rare plants. Color distribution maps by regions clearly show that southwest Australia and the Cape York Peninsula of Queensland have the lion's share of rare or threatened taxa. 46% of the taxa are from Western Australia. We learn that 199 taxa are only known from their original collection site. Poorly known taxa make up the bulk of the list at 47%, indicating a large number of taxa needing inventory. In addition, of these taxa having at least one population in a reserve (2,738), 74% have no accurate information on population size; however of taxa entirely protected in reserves (258) little more is known about their abundance since 58% lack information. Counteracting this lack of information is the finding that the percentages of taxa that are represented in reserves has increased overall and by state, due to recent surveys and creation of new reserves (sometimes to protect rare plants). Not surprisingly the dominant plant families in Australia (e.g. Myrtaceae, Proteaceae, Mimosaceae, Orchidaceae, Fabaceae) make up the 57% of rare plants. Acacia is the largest rare plant genus. Most species are endemic since only 5.4% of the rare plants occur outside the continent. Chi squared or log linear analysis of some of these distribution tables might have added an interesting statistical feature to this analysis.

The book is impeccably produced. The cover is colorful with three nested species photographs. I found no typographic errors, but did not check the lists. The great separation between the species abstracts and their photographs was disconcerting. A nice feature within the list is occasional light line drawings of a taxa behind the text on the page where it is listed.

If you are from Australia and its island territories and/or are interested in the rare flora of this region, this book is for you. Otherwise it is an important reference book for libraries. The listing details and summary statistics would be useful for courses in comparative plant biogeography and conservation. - Noel B. Pavlovic, Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station, Great Lakes Science Center, U.S.G.S, Biological Resources Division, Porter, Indiana, USA.

Literature cited

Barlow, B. A. 1981.The Australian flora: its origin and evolution. In: Flora of Australia: Volume 1, Introduction. Ed. A. S. George. Bureau of Flora and Fauna, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. pp. 25-75.Cropper, S. C. 1993.Management of Endangered Plants. CSIRO. 182pp.

Book Reviews: Ecological

Null Models in Ecology. Gotelli, Nicholas J. and Gary R. Graves. 1996. ISBN 56098-657-3 (paper US$30) 368 pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, P.O. Box 960, Herndon VA 22070 - Although collecting empirical data is an important function of science, the greatest advances in our understanding of the world are made by falsifying well-formulated null hypotheses. The science of ecology generates mountains of empirical data, but falsifiable hypotheses have been few and far between. Null models are statistical predictions or computer simulations against which empirical data can be tested for evidence of pattern, i.e. null models can provide falsifiable null hypotheses. Gotelli and Graves provide an intellectual history and philosophy of null models in Chapter 1, review their application in select fields of community ecology (species diversity, relative abundance, niche overlap, temporal niches, size ratios, co-occurrence, species-area relationships, biogeography, and food webs) in Chapters 2-10, and close with an Epilogue which summarizes the pitfalls in null model construction that should be considered when critically reading the literature or formulating a null model of your own. The book provides a skillfully written, thoroughly referenced, and remarkably evenhanded analysis of the literature in one of the most contentious fields of ecology. It should be read by every serious ecologist.

Before proceeding with a review of what this book is about, I should mention what the authors chose to omit. To quote the Preface:

We chose to limit our discussion of null models to community-level processes. Consequently, we have not discussed null models of population dynamics, animal behavior, landscape ecology, ecosystem modeling or phylogeny. We have also omitted purely statistical issues such as bootstrapping and jackknifing. Although we occasionally illustrate the probability equations used in these analyses, this is not a cookbook or workbook of null models...A second null model book needs to be written, one that contains null model software that would allow researchers to analyze data more easily using these tests. For the time being, null model analyses are accessible only to those with some programming expertise...

Even within these self-imposed limits, Gotelli and Graves find no shortage of literature to review. For those seeking an introduction to mathematical modeling applications in ecology, I suggest A Primer of Ecology (Gotelli 1995; ISBN 0-8793-270-4); those interested in an applied null modeling text should, I suppose, patiently await Null Models II.

In Chapter 1, the authors define their subject, tackle the history and controversy surrounding the use of null models, and, in so doing, demonstrate their own skill at fairly representing adversarial positions. By their definition: "A null model is a pattern-generating model that is based on randomization of ecological data or random sampling from a known or imagined distribution. The null model is designed with respect to some ecological or evolutionary process of interest. Certain elements of the data are held constant, and others are allowed to vary stochastically to generate new assemblage patterns. The randomization is designed to produce a pattern that would be expected in the absence of a particular ecological mechanism." Such models make a clear distinction between the pattern observed and the process or processes which may have generated the pattern. Null models also rely on the principles of parsimony and falsification, and thereby maintain the possibility of no effect. Critics of the null model approach charge that falsification is meaningless if the null hypothesis is not properly constructed, and that "reliable null hypotheses may be impossible to construct, because we cannot generally deduce the nature of expected patterns that would emerge in the absence of any given biological process." Rather than throw the baby out with the bath water, Gotelli and Graves argue that null models have forced both experimental and theoretical ecologists to articulate and evaluate their hypotheses, thereby increasing the rigor and lucidity of ecological thought.

Chapters 2 through 10 share a structure in which the authors review and critique important contributions to the development of the subject, highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each position in the ongoing debate, and close with a paragraph entitled "Recommendations." With 45 pages of citations, Gotelli and Graves are comprehensive in their review of the literature through 1993, providing a coherent and accessible introduction to the field for any student of ecology. Their noteworthy recommendations point to specific exemplars in the literature, suggest the most profitable directions for future research, and provide food for critical thought.

The Epilogue raises some neglected problems in the construction of null models: i.e. the construction of source pools, species taxonomy, sexual dimorphism and geographic variation of body size, anthropogenic extinctions, and data quality. In essence, it is difficult or impossible for the quality of the model output (predictions) to exceed the quality of the input (model structure and parameterization). Rigorous attention must be paid to the assumptions underlying model structure and the data used in parameterization for the model predictions to be meaningful. Now that second- and third-hand data are available with unheard of ease over the Internet, and the software hurdles to writing and running models have been lowered to the point where everyone can enter the race, it is likely that we will see increases in both the use and misuse of the null model approach. It is the authors' hope that "the suggestions in this Epilogue and the recommendations at the end of each chapter will at least serve to increase the quality of future null model studies." I believe they will. - Jonathan P. Frye, McPherson College, McPherson, Kansas

The Natural History of Pollination Proctor, Michael, Peter Yeo, and Andrew Lack. 1996. ISBN 0-88192-352-4 (hardcover US$42.95), ISBN 0-88192-353-2 (US$24.95 paperback). Printed and typeset in Great Britain by The Bath Press, available from Timber Press, Inc., The Haseltine Building, 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204. - The forerunner of this book, Proctor and Yeo's 1973 The Pollination of Flowers, No. 54 in the New Naturalist series, was motivated by a desire to draw together the European literature on pollination ecology. For the new edition, which includes literature published as recently as 1995, Michael Proctor, an Honorary research Fellow in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Exeter and a Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society, and Peter Yeo, a former taxonomist at the University Botanic Garden, Cambridge, have been joined by Andrew Lack, lecturer in biology at Oxford Brookes University. Lack is well-known to ecologists for his work on competition for pollinators in Centaurea, pollination in British chalk grassland and sand-dune communities, as well as several studies of pollination in tropical species.

The book contains 16 chapters, beginning with the history of pollination biology (among the best chapters in the book), the structure of flowers and inflorescences (for "the general reader"), the main groups of pollinators, including sections on insects, birds, bats, and other vertebrates, and wind and water pollination. Subsequent chapters are devoted to orchid pollination, pollination involving deception, and pollination involving egg laying by pollinators in flowers. Breeding systems and crop pollination are covered next, while the last three chapters deal with pollination through time, pollination in plant communities, and "Flowers, Genes, and Populations." This last includes sections on male vs. female function of flowers, sexual selection, and genetic consequences of mate choice that in my view should all have gone into the "breeding system" chapter. The bibliography comprises 1192 references of which 65% are more recent than 1973.

The Natural History of Pollination is well written and covers a lot of ground. It contains much more information (in the sense of specific examples or case stories) than any other available book on pollination. Moreover, pollination biologists, who have loved the book's predecessor for its outstanding black-and-white photographs of flowers, will find that the new book has (even) more pictures; there are an additional eight color plates, with four to eight photos each, all of exceptional quality. The black-and-white drawings illustrating insect mouthparts or flower structure in some cases are reduced rather drastically to fit the 17.5 x 11.3 cm type area of the book, but are still perfectly readable. (Two small quibbles: Fig. 7.19 of a chalcid wasp with a pollinium of musk orchid attached to each front femur is incompletely labeled. It shows a "pm", which must mean pollen mass, and a "vd", which I have yet to figure out. In Fig. 7.24 of a fresh and a triggered Pterostylis rufa, photos a and b have been switched.)

Being particularly interested in Melastomataceae, I was surprised to find a flower of Tibouchina (Fig. 10.1) under the chapter heading "Deception and Diptera: Sapromyiophyly." Of course, most of the chapter deals with Aristolochiaceae, Araceae, and orchids that are fly-pollinated, but it starts out by discussing deception in melastomes, Cassia, and other bee-pollinated pollen flowers. Pollination by pollen-collecting bees capable of extracting pollen from anthers by high-frequency vibrations transmitted to the stamens is treated at length in chapter 6 (pp. 179-180) under the header "flowers providing pollen as the sole reward." Cross reference to this sections would have been helpful. Also, it is by no means clear that Melastomataceae and Cassia are good examples of deceit. What constitutes deceit in pollination is a difficult subject, partly because of our incomplete understanding of insect sensory systems or learning processes and partly because net gains and losses in mutualisms shift constantly, which is what drives their evolution. Proctor, Yeo, Lack describe as deceit the fact that Melastomataceae and some other plants have two types of stamens, one of which is assumed to provide food while the other dusts visiting insects with "functional" pollen. This hypothesis goes back to the Fritz Mueller (1873, 1883) and Hermann Mueller (1881, 1883) although they are rarely credited for it. Wolfe et al. (1991) tested the hypothesis in Solanum rostratum, a buzz-pollinated species with dimorphic anthers held to be feeding and fertilizing anthers, respectively, and found that pollen from each set of anthers reached the stigma in equal amounts. A further example of how difficult it is to neatly assign pollination systems to either the deceit category or the reward category is provided by Proctor, Yeo, and Lack's treatment of brood-site pollination in two places: first in chapter 10, under the subtitle "brood-site imitation" (pp. 295-305) and then again in chapter 11 under "brood-site pollination" (pp. 311-320). Surprisingly, Pellmyr and Huth's (1994) paper on how overexploitation is prevented in one of the best studied brood-site pollination system is not cited in the long section on the Tegeticula - Yucca interaction.

The coverage of the European literature is excellent; a few obvious omissions are the series of papers by Y. Nyman on the pollination of Campanula (see Nyman 1993) and of A. Erhardt on that of Dianthus (one of his early papers is cited, however). Because of the authors' effort to include recent research foci, the treatment of breeding systems and incompatibility has changed considerably from the previous incarnation of this book, and I found this section (occupying 29 pages) particularly well-balanced. Phylogenetic viewpoints, however, are absent. Thus, macroevolution is alluded to only obliquely, for example, where it is stated that the androdioecious species of Datisca are derived from the dioecious ones, but the critical phylogenetic assessment of that hypothesis by Swensen et al. (1994) is not cited. Bee keeping, crop pollination, and pollination in ecological communities, on the other hand, receive ample treatment as is appropriate in a book conceived for the New Naturalists rather than plant systematists.

Clearly, The Natural History of Pollination is invaluable as a source reference and for its succinct summary of knowledge on the pollination and breeding systems of plants. It is also an exceptionally beautifully illustrated book. - Susanne Renner, Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis

Literature Cited

Mueller F. 1873.
(letters). In: A. Moeller (editor), Fritz Mueller. Werke, Briefe und Leben. vols. I-III. Fischer Vlg., Jena.
-. 1883.
Two kinds of stamens with different functions in the same flower. Nature 27: 364-365.
Mueller, H. 1881.
Two kinds of stamens with different functions in the same flower. Nature 24: 307-308.
-. 1883.
Arbeitstheilung bei Staubgefaessen von Pollenblumen. Kosmos 13: 241-259.
Nyman, Y. 1993.
The pollen-collecting hairs of Campanula (Campanulaceae). II. Function and adaptive significance in relation to pollination. Am. J. Bot. 80: 1437-1443.
Pellmyr, O, and C. J. Huth. 1994.
Evolutionary stability of mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths. Nature 372: 257-260.
Swensen, S. M., Mullin, B. C., and M. W. Chase. 1994.
Phylogenetic affinities of Datiscaceae based on an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid rbcL gene. Syst. Bot. 19: 157-168.
Wolfe, A. D., Estes, J. R., and W. F. Chissoe III. 1991.
Tracking pollen flow of Solanum rostratum (Solanacaee) using backscatter scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis. Am. J. Bot. 78: 1503-1507.

Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests Bullock, Stephen H., Harold A. Mooney, and Ernesto Medina, eds., 1995. ISBN 0-521-43514-50 (cloth US$ 95) 450 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York NY 10011 - Tropical dry forest habitat has been the most exploited by humans, with much of it having been developed or converted to agriculture and pasture. Dry forests occupy more area than wet forests, yet very little of the dry forest remains, and only a small portion of that is actively being conserved. Public and scientific attention has been long directed toward the imperiled rainforests, but only recently has the plight of tropical dry forests been brought to the attention of the scientists and others concerned with conservation of biodiversity. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests provides the educated reader with a wealth of information about these widespread and important habitats. This comprehensive volume is mostly the result of a symposium held at the Estacion de Biología Chamela in Jalisco, Mexico. Chapters are authored by authorities from six countries, and most of the chapters consider data from a diversity of tropical dry forest sites. The book covers topics at many levels: autecological (drought responses, ecophysiology), population (phenology, reproduction, herbivory), community (biogeography, diversity, ethnobotany), and ecosystem (climate, gas emissions and global effects).

A number of chapters describe forests in different geographic locations in great detail: Murphy & Lugo examine Central America and the Caribbean; Sampaio examines caatinga in Brazil; Menaut, LePage & Abbadie review the African savanna and dry forest; Rundel & Boonpragob discuss the seasonal monsoon climate in Thailand, contrasting it with India. Other chapters cover particular topics, such as Graham & Dilcher's review of fossil plants in N. Latin America and Bye's discussion of ethnobotany in Mexico. Several chapters deal with biodiversity: Gentry compares 31 forests with data from transects discussing taxonomic trends and endemism; Ceballos surveys vertebrates of Mexico and Central America; and Medina compares life form diversity in dry forest with other forests. Some of the chapters are more mechanistic and physiological: Holbrook, Whitbeck and Mooney review drought responses of trees, including effects on structure, physiology, and phenology; Martinez-Yrizar reviews biomass production and primary productivity, including litterfall and litter decomposition; Jaramillo and Sanford discuss nutrient cycling; and Cuevas reviews underground phenomena (soil respiration, roots, microbes, and their relationships); Matson and Vitousek discuss nitrogen trace gas emissions from their Mexican study site and contributions to the global balance. The final chapter by Maas on conversion of tropical dry forest reviews effects of deforestation on many ecosystem processes.

I found two chapters to be exceptional: Bullock's on plant reproduction, and Dirzo & Dominguez on plant/herbivore interactions. Bullock examines mating patterns of plants in a comprehensive survey of diverse dry forest sites. He includes an interesting figure graphing the index of self-incompatibility for different sites and different plant genera. Extended flowering is less common in dry forest plants than wet forest plants, and flowering is shorter in duration and more synchronous within and among species. Dirzo and Dominguez examine the effects of animals on plants, including folivory, seed predation, and effects of herbivory on plant population biology (fruit production, seeds and seedlings, fruit maturation, dispersal and establishment. They demonstrate that, in general, single measures of herbivory underestimate leaf area loss by 50% compared with long-term measures in which leaves are marked and re-measured. This differs among species and is especially dramatic for species with high levels of damage. There is really something for everyone in this book. The chapters I found to be the most interesting and exciting happen to be in my own interest areas, and I suspect that might be true for most readers! Overall, the volume seems well written and edited, with each chapter offering new insights. I think this book will be of great interest to not only tropical biologists, but to any biologist working in communities where there is seasonality in rainfall and deciduous vegetation. This book is an important reference for anyone interested in biological diversity, and is especially useful because of the multiple comparisons among distant dry forest sites. I recommend it to professors, graduate students, and undergraduates. It will be useful in courses in plant ecology, biogeography, tropical botany or ecology, and conservation biology. - Suzanne Koptur, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL

Book Review: Evolutionary

The Evolutionary Biology of Plants Niklas, Karl J., 1997. ISBN 0-226-58083-0 (paper $19.95) xix + 449 pp. University of Chicago Press, 11030 South Langley Avenue, Chicago IL 60628 - Plant biologists will enjoy this stimulating book, but there may be reservations about its use for students. Clearly it is towards students that it is directed because of its very affordable price in paperback. Karl Niklas is well known for his efforts to bring plant biomechanics into the forefront of botany (Plant Biomechanics and Plant Allometry) and there is much of this engineering approach to biology in the book under review. However, here he attempts a much more ambitious program, no less than a description of evolutionary diversification in plants, from the origin of life itself to the diversification of modern plant groups. Botanists will welcome his consistent choice of plants to exemplify evolutionary concepts and he makes no apologies for reiterating basic principles from a "phytocentric bias" because of his belief, correct I am sure, that students learn best by repetition. His constant emphasis on why plants, for developmental reasons, may differ from animals in their evolutionary processes becomes an important message. The underlying approach is that of "adaptive evolution," based on the Sewall Wright metaphor of the "fitness landscape," a landscape including "adaptive peaks" up which genotypes and phenotypes may be driven by natural selection. The book is liberally sprinkled with computer simulated "adaptive walks" in such hypothetical landscapes or "morphospaces." The refreshingly unique approach in this adaptationist program lies in the consistent attempt, not merely to describe, but to try and account for plant biological processes and their structural bases in functionally adaptive terms. For example, it is not sufficient simply to describe the biochemistry of the photosynthetic mechanism, rather there is a discussion of its probably origins in terms of microbial evolution. Similar approaches govern basic evolutionary events like the origins of the eukaryotic condition, sexual reproduction, multicellularity, the advent of a land flora through to the functional basis for evolutionary diversification of plants in terrestrial floras. In all, eight major evolutionary events in the evolution of plants are discussed. A veritable tour de force.

The book is divided into four sections, each with two chapters, so the chapters are long. The first section covers basic evolutionary principles and speciation and may seem dated in terms of some of the examples used. However, the opportunity to see older work presented in a newer context is stimulating and such a background may be deemed necessary to understand later discussion. The second section is highly contemporary in its chronicle of evolutionary events from the perspective of cellular processes and cell origins, but continues through to the diversification of modern plant groups. It provides as concise and lucid an overview of the origin of plants and their life cycles as one could wish - from the primordial ooze to the flower in a hundred pages. The third section is entertaining because of its more speculative nature, exploring the condition under which plants first diversified in water to their landward migration in functional terms, making liberal use of the adaptationist philosophy. The final section brings us into the domain that Niklas has made very much his own - the adaptive radiation of more recent groups of plants in functional or mechanical terms, providing an opportunity to demonstrate divergences and convergences in the diversification of the land flora. The final chapter is a rather disconnected return to evolutionary principles and a brief outline of molecular genetics. In summary, this is an ideas book that attempts much, but since the writing carries one along with the continual presentation of new approaches, the result is stimulating and enjoyable.

Reservations about the book arise from the method of illustration and the "adaptationist" program itself. Illustrations are almost universally derived from computer-generated images ("cartoons" the author called them) so this is a book about plants without illustrations of plants. The result is a good way to present ideas, but can produce little more than caricatures of real organisms (virtual botany?) and it is not difficult to point out error. It is a botany based on hypothetical models, and known information is either ignored, misunderstood or misinterpreted because sources are either not cited or are often secondary. This detracts from the pedagogic botanical process of showing what plants actually look like. The text would well be supplemented by a laboratory course so that one can more directly appreciate the substrate for all these ideas. For a text-book, the rapid presentation of so many ideas may be a good challenge to more advanced students.

The adaptationist program itself offers difficulties that Niklas himself is careful to point out in the introduction - how does one know that natural selection is indeed working on the structures emphasized and in the ways proposed? For example, it is an attractive idea to interpret ovule morphology in early seed plants in terms of pollen capture, but how does one know it is true? The distinction between plausible explanation and precise mechanism, especially in fossil groups, is a grey area and students should not be led into the mist blindfold. The concept that these are hypothetical presentations, initially stated, is soon abandoned, even though the word "posited" is liberally used. The transition from speculation to conventional wisdom is readily made in the absence of experimental verification, or extensive biological comparison. Due caution is necessary and the author's own view of naive expectancy on the part of an observer should at all times be borne in mind.

The balance sheet is still overwhelmingly in favor of a strong recommendation. The book comes at an appropriate time in the intellectual development of evolutionary biology since its constant emphasis on how organisms work and how evolution is a continual modification of functional processes is a welcome antidote to the current myopic view of many biologists that evolutionary study is simply the identification of putative phyletic lineages and organisms exist only to be reduced to character states and characters. There should be balance in intellectual endeavors and this book could represent a point at which biology might be directed back to the study of organisms at work. The notion that a "grade" level of comparison is as important as a "clade" level analysis has almost been lost from our botanical classrooms. Niklas here provides a medium in which the products of evolutionary innovation can be assessed in likely functional terms.

The book is well produced and errors are minor (although any paleobotanist knows that Zosterophyllum is not a seagrass!). I recommend this work as a major contribution to the understanding of the evolutionary biology of plants. - P. B. Tomlinson, Harvard University, Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA 01366.

Book Review: Historical

Life's Splendid Drama: Evolutionary Biology and the Reconstruction of Life's Ancestry 1860-1940. Bowler, Peter J. 1996. 0-226-06921-4 (cloth US$37.95) 538 pp. The University of Chicago Press, 11030 South Langley Avenue, Chicago IL 60628 - Building on his established corpus of historical work, Peter Bowler's latest and most important book examines the forgotten legion of biologists who attempted to reconstruct the history of life on earth following the articulation of Darwinian evolutionary theory. Its temporal span is approximately from the publication of Darwin's Origin in 1859, to the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and the 1940s. According to Bowler, the vast majority of biologists, post-Origin, sought not to understand the mechanism of evolution, but instead were engaged in a vast scientific project to reconstruct the history of life on earth (hence, the proliferation of images of trees of life in the late nineteenth century). This was an onerous task that demanded knowledge and skills from diverse areas of biology and that frequently ended in blind alleys, irresolvable puzzles and endless frustration for the parties involved; yet according to Bowler, these were the most important concerns for most "evolutionary biologists" in the late nineteenth century. The title of his book, Life's Splendid Drama (borrowed with credit from paleontologist William Diller Matthew by way of the paleontologist Edwin H. Colbert), thus refers to the "drama" of efforts to trace the tortuous history of life on earth.

According to Bowler, the historical erasure of most of these biologists, many of whom were leading morphologists like Edwin S Goodrich, is mostly an artifact of historical writing. Bowler contends that because historians of science have focused on the fate of Darwinian selection theory, its conceptual origin, and its tortuous history of acceptance through the period recognized as the "eclipse of Darwin" to the evolutionary synthesis of the modern period, they have failed to properly consider that most biologists were actually focusing on the history and pattern of life on earth. The rise of the "glamorous" science of genetics, which aided understanding of the mechanism of evolution, only took more historical attention away from these biologists.

Bowler singles out three areas that were critical to understanding life's history: evolutionary morphology, paleontology, and biogeography. All had tumultuous histories in the late nineteenth century, but each adjusted to new questions arising from evolutionary concerns and began to look to each other for answers. In the process, Bowler argues, they created a coherent field of study associated with "evolutionary biology," and thus became the first generation of "evolutionary biologists." Most of Bowler's book is devoted to extensive analysis of the major questions in each of these areas in the late nineteenth century and how the fields interacted with each other to gain answers. Chapters are organized around the major debates of the late nineteenth century: the origin of the arthropods, the origin of the vertebrates, the evolution of fish to amphibians, the origin of birds and mammals, and the history of biogeography. Human evolution is omitted as readers are referred to Bowler's earlier book on the subject, Theories of Human Evolution: A Century of Debate, 1844-1944. As Bowler argues, it was this body of work that played an important role in the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and the 1940s, not so much by immediate "input" into the synthetic theory, but by paving the way for its eventual acceptance. The career of a second generation evolutionist, George Gaylord Simpson, the paleontological architect of the evolutionary synthesis, is the best example of this.

The book is rich in detail, yet as Bowler points out, it is only a sample of the attempts to reconstruct life's history. It is clearly written and the illustrations enhance the appearance of the book, but there are also an alarming number of typographical errors both in the scientific terms and in the text proper. His basic arguments are convincing and important. The book is also a valuable contribution to our understanding of the history of biology as it exhumes a number of important figures buried by the historical record, and brings attention to the painstaking process of phylogeny construction. The truth is that most historians, and some biologists, frequently forget that scientific research is often routine, tedious, and all too frequently results in dead-ends. It is thus welcome to bring the "everyday practice" of biology into historical relief.

Bowler's analysis is not without some problems, however. Two grow out of his choice of ambitious subtitle: "Evolutionary Biology and the Reconstruction of Life's Ancestry." The first will appear minor to its scientific readers as it evokes the feuding among historians of science about historiography (the technical term for the way that historians write their histories). It is, nonetheless important for his basic argument. Following the conventions of intellectual history that seek to understand the past on its own terms, Bowler explicitly states that he will not use modern terminology for his historical figures "to avoid imposing modern preconceptions onto the past" (p. xi). His final chapter elaborates this further, and even suggests that knowledge itself is linguistically mediated. Yet this does not seem to restrain Bowler's modernist use of the two most important terms for his analysis, "evolution," and "evolutionary biology," which, as he admits, were not used in the modern sense by his historical actors. Here Bowler, an eminently sensible historian has taken too seriously recent facile claims that the absence or restricted use of the terms implies that the subjects did not exist. Quite rightly so, Bowler bristles at such remarks as his understanding of the historical record indicates otherwise. In defense against such claims, Bowler goes out of his way to make his case by using modern terms; in so doing, unfortunately, he contradicts his methodology. My own sense is that Bowler's project would have been better served by consistently applying the methods of linguistic analysis that rely on accurate use of historical terms. His own analysis otherwise demonstrates wonderfully how the study of evolution, evolved; to miss out on the fumbling for terms and the fumbling for self-identification, is to miss the processual maturation of the body of science-and scientists-who recognized themselves explicitly as evolutionary biologists only during the evolutionary synthesis period of the 1940s (and even then this process was not completed). If evolutionary biologists could finally argue for a coherent, unifying discipline in the 1940s, it was because of the heroic efforts of their predecessors who paved the way; this is, after all, the point of Bowler's book.

Also troubling is the spotty inclusion of the "external" context of evolutionary thought. Here Bowler is following trends in historical scholarship that stress cultural forces at work in science (and says so explicitly, especially in the final chapter), but I found the references to these wider cultural conditions incompletely developed and inconsistently applied. As a result, Bowler's attempts to situate some of the historical figures in the context of "empire" or within movements of social progress associated with social Darwinism come across not so much as wrong, but as somewhat cursory remarks without the full force of gravity that they properly deserve.

Readers of this bulletin will have already picked up the second more serious problem with the book: there is little, if no treatment of the plant world. In all fairness, Bowler explicitly states that his book is restricted to the zoological attempts to reconstruct life's history, yet he makes claims about general patterns in evolutionary biology; nor does he offer any explanation for the omission of botany. He considers plants only when knowledge from botany informed matters of concern to zoologists. I could find only several instances where Bowler found examples of cross-over between zoologists and botanists (and only two botanists out of ninety-two historical figures are included in the biographical appendix). The major discussion of a botanical nature appears in the most valuable chapter of the book, on biogeography, where evidence from the plant fossil record contributed to debates associated with climatic cooling. Glossopteris, the fossil seed fern whose distribution paved the way for the acceptance of continental drift, makes a brief appearance in this chapter (but is not important enough for inclusion in the index along with other zoological critters). Given a book of this length intending to survey the history of evolutionary biology, and given that the late nineteenth century saw an explosive growth in the botanical equivalents of the same areas highlighted for zoology, the absence of botany is a serious omission. My own sense is that botany-and botanists-would have added even more complications to an already complicated story. How would the invention of the "New Botany," which stressed experimental methods over the descriptive history of life, the German idealist morphological tradition, the rise of agricultural genetics, and the unique problems of preservation and interpretation, encountered in paleobotany affect Bowler's story? Without the inclusion of botany, the book cannot properly make claims for the history of evolutionary biology; late nineteenth century biology minus botany, equals zoology, at least from my reckoning.

But botanists should not be dissuaded from reading and enjoying this book. Both problems I point to could easily have been avoided with a more modest title referring to evolutionary zoology; but this misnomer is no fatal flaw. It may, in fact, invite more scholarship on the subject. - Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis, Department of History, University of Florida, Gainesville

Book Reviews: Horticultural

The Gardener's Guide to Growing Fritillaries. Pratt, Kevin and Michael Jefferson-Brown, 1997. ISBN 0-88192-387-7 (cloth US$29.95) 160pp. Timber Press, 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204 -- The Gardener's Guide to Growing Fritillaries claims to be the first book on the genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae), whose members are commonly called fritillaries, in over fifty years, and a library search reveals that this is almost true -- a library search revealed a 1953 book for gardeners by Christabel Beck. The authors of the present book hope to revive and promote interest in these bulbous monocots, which they admit are not the easiest bulbs to grow and flower. Fritillaria contains species native to Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America, and you may recognize F. meleagris L. as part of the logo of the Scandinavian Society for Plant Physiology.

The authors of The Gardener's Guide to Growing Fritillaries begin by giving the reader a solid, non-technical discussion of the botany of fritillaries, with a careful explanation of the terminological simplifications employed -- e.g. replacement with the more familiar "petal" for the less familiar but botanically more correct "tepal." This introduction also includes several good figures illustrating the range of leaf, bulb, and flower types found in Fritillaria. It should be noted that the authors include the Korolkowia and Rhinopetalum sections of Fritillaria in their definition of the genus, while some reports in the literature split these off to make two additional genera. The cultivation of fritillaries indoors and out, and in association with other plants as in heather gardens, is considered. A clear and concise chapter on propagation and breeding concludes the well-organized first third of the book. Directions are given for propagation by seed, bulblets, and scales, all of which should be within reach of the amateur gardener.

The next several chapters, though interesting, do not fit into a clear organizational scheme. Fritillaries in the wild are discussed with an emphasis on the climate in the area of origin, followed by advice on fritlllary culture from three well-respected British horticulturalists; Kath Dryden, John Hill, and Christopher Grey-Wilson; who have worked with fritillaries. North American fritillaries receive their own chapter as does the showing of fritillary blossoms in competition.

The last third of the book is taken up with useful lists regarding the types and culture of various fritillaries. The different species of fritillaries and notable subspecies and clones of those species are presented in brief descriptive paragraphs which are generally concise and informative. Next comes appendices which include lists of sources for fritillary material and a very handy table giving the flowering time, size, color, ease of cultivation, and necessary summer soil conditions for a large range of species and clones. One significant drawback here is a lack of sources in the United States and North America for fritillary material in the list given. This absence and the lack of an explanation is especially surprising given the inclusion in this book published in North America of a whole chapter on species native to North America. More pictures are needed for the descriptive section, particularly since this is the first book on fritillaries for some decades and since the authors stated as an important goal the promotion of interest in Fritillaria. Preferably, each species should be illustrated.

In general, this is a valuable book for a professional library. In places the text tends to be verbose, making for slow and confusing reading. For example, on p. 33 one reads "If you are trying outdoor cultivation of some of the species that are normally grown under glass and benefit from summer drought, it could save life and encourage further flowering next season if you provide cover with a cloche or a sheet of polythene, extending it well beyond the bulbs' site and securing and disguising it with scatter of compost or shredded bark." In spite of this, The Gardener's Guide to Growing Fritillaries makes for enjoyable reading. - Douglas Darnowski, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801

Growing Bulbs: the Complete Practical Guide Matthew, Brian, 1997. ISBN 0-88192-384-2 (cloth US$29.95) 160 pp. Timber Pres, 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204 - Growing Bulbs: the Complete Practical Guide presents a clearly and concisely written account of growing various showy flowering plants, most of them monocots from seasonally harsh climates, which possessing a storage organ. The author holds the prestigious Victoria Medal from the Royal Horticultural Society and is a widely respected expert in the cultivation of this horticultural class of plants. He has written several noted reference works such as The Iris and The Smaller Bulbs, and here his stated goal is to produce a book which is dedicated more to the cultivation of bulbs than to the consideration of the species themselves and their interrelationships. The author's wide experience in growing most of the bulbs discussed in this book is a significant factor in fulfilling the "complete" and "practical" claims of the title.

This book is intended to be accessible to amateur growers, not just to botanists and tradesmen. For this reason, botanical terminology is used loosely -- "bulbs" in the title and text refers to a horticultural class of plant species having storage organs including corms, rhizomes, true bulbs, and tubers. Matthew's care shows in that he carefully explains both where he uses language loosley and why he does so. In discussing each of the genera or species of "bulbs" he usually gives the correct botanical term for the storage organ of that particular species. Growing Bulbs: the Complete Practical Guide contains a solid review of the basic botany and biogeography of this horticultural group along with advice on indoor and outdoor cultivation of the various species, according to the climate of the region in which the species occur in nature. Though the author gardens in southwestern England, he is careful to make available cultivation advice for various regions of the world in which the reader might be gardening. Propagation instructions are included for the amateur bulb-grower along with information on important pests and diseases of the species discussed. Some miscellaneous topics such as the promotion of flowering in many species, such as some Narcissus and Iris, by exposure to smoke also are discussed.

Matthew's book concludes with a review of the various genera of plants having bulbs, in the loose sense which he uses, giving a thumbnail sketch of each. One strength of this book is that the author has grown most of the species discussed, and he has raised close relatives of most of the others. This gives a solid practical grounding to the cultural information provided -- this is indeed a "practical guide."

Two weak points of the book also occur in this review of genera due to the brevity of this section. Only a minority of the entries are accompanied by a photograph of a species from the genus described. Since the book is not intended solely for an expert and professional audience, more photographs are needed, particularly of less common species. A few entries should contain more detail -- for example the entry for Tulipa which consists of only a few paragraphs, omitting discussion of the various horticultural types of tulips. Since this book is aimed at amateurs and is designed to be "complete" and "practical," discussion of these groups, e.g. Darwin tulips, or even a mere mention that these groups exist is needed.

In general, this book is excellent, living up to the "complete" and the "practical" in the title, of use for amateur weekend gardeners and for professionals looking for a simple ready-reference. The depth of the author's experience is balanced by the breadth of the range of horticulturally valuable genera considered. The simplified botanical nomenclature which is employed is both appropriate and clearly defined for the target audience. This work would be useful for the weekend gardener, the reserve list for an introductory course in horticulture or floriculture, or for a professional library. Given the high quality of botanical publications consistently produced by Timber Press, it is no surprise that this book comes from them. - Douglas Darnowski, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801

Book Review: Mycological

The Nature of Disease in Plants. Scheffer, R. P. 1997. ISBN 0-521-48247-X (cloth US$64.95) 325 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY10011 . — It would seem that the other four Kingdoms of Life are at war with the plants. Almost all plants are subject to one kind of disease or another. Plant disease is a poorly understood array of phenomena that include biotic and abiotic factors which may affect the organism at any stage in its life cycle. Plant diseases are a complex set of interactions of host (or hosts) and their pathogens. These interactions are mediated by toxins, recognition processes, and ecological conditions. Of the myriad vectors that transmit plant disease, the profound, long-term disturbance that humans have introduced to the planet is perhaps the most influential factor. Yet we know too little about how to control plant disease.

Of course, I was excited when I received my copy of Disease in Plants for review. "What a wonderful idea," I thought, "teaching plant disease from the vantage point of natural history." Leafing through the book I was thrilled to see that the history of discovery was another theme in the book. We scientists need to teach more about history in our courses! There were the photos of some of my old mycology favorites. There was Anton deBary, the great microbiologist and discoverer of the causal agent of late potato blight (Phytophthora infestans). And there on page 157, a portrait of Elvin Charles Stakman, whose elucidation of the "Puccinia pathway," based on dogged determination and true research grit, explained the seasonal northward movement of wheat rust through the North American plains. The giant figures in botany, like plant disease itself, are the mainstay of many a mycology class. If they are taught well, they provide the real thrill that draws students to seemingly arcane courses in botany, microbiology, and plant pathology. Unfortunately, they are not taught especially well in this book.

While the author (who died shortly after finishing this book) held his direct and indirect mentors in the highest esteem, he did not present their work with the kind of verve that could bring them to life. After a short ad lucid introduction, the prose in this volume gets bogged down in the dense, sometimes unclearly articulated facts of plants diseases and their history. The research of the author's mentors, Armin Braun and John Walker, are highlighted in the first chapters. Their work, while important and thoroughly documented here, simply does not grab the reader's interest. I found myself tempted to put the book down, wishing things would move along a bit faster. Later chapters tell the story of various diseases under headings that suggest a unifying theme loosely based around natural history, for example, ecology, aliens, and adaptation. Yet the themes are not amplified. The chapter headings seem almost arbitrary. Some disease processes are explained, others are not. We learn little about the biology of chestnut blight but Dutch elm disease is explained down to the molecular level. What is worse, Koch's postulates, which are central to plant pathology, are mentioned on page 86, as though we had already made friends with them, but this is their first introduction in the book. They are found again on page 106, but only parenthetically! The book starts to look like a collection of class lectures, but there is no professor up there to ask where to look up the Koch postulates or the life cycle of Endothia parasitica. We are left with a pretty mundane, somewhat inconsistent re-telling of the old stories, which is a shame.

There are some positive points, however. Throughout the text, the author repeats a disclaimer that the book is not encyclopedic and to his credit, many diseases are nevertheless considered and discussed. The book is richly cited, which should help students find primary sources if they are so inclined. Although the natural history of plant disease is not really grappled with, the possibility is suggested here, at least. This book represents an enormously rich field of inquiry. It could have offered much more. — Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University.

Book Review: Physiological

Plant Ecophysiology. Prasad, M.N.V. 1997. ISBN 0-471-13157-1(cloth US$89.95) 542pp. John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Ave., New York NY 10158. - The usual problem with edited books is that they lack in coherence, betraying the fact that they have been assembled by asking a variety of people to come up with whatever they could under the general guidelines suggested by the title of the book. "Plant Ecophysiology" is a welcomed partial exception to this pattern. To the credit of the editor, the volume really reads almost as a unified organic whole, and the sequence of chapters actually makes sense.

Mind you, this is not the kind of book you would necessarily read from beginning to end. On the other hand, it does represent a very convenient and well organized compendium of recent research in the general field of plant ecological physiology (or physiological ecology, depending on where you would rather put the emphasis). The volume is divided in two major parts, the first one on natural abiotic factors influencing plant growth and performance, the second one concerned with anthropogenic biotic factors. I guess my major discomfort with the whole enterprise is actually due to this bizarre subdivision. Why is it that abiotic factors are natural, and biotic factors are anthropogenic? Ever heard of intra- and inter-specific competition, anyone?

Be as it may, I think there is a marked difference in the quality and interest of the two parts of the volume, with the human-centered portion being on the loosing side (but then again, I tend to be attracted to "basic" research, so I must confess a bias to begin with). The first part of "Plant Ecophysiology" is made of eight chapters exploring the influences on plant life of an important, albeit incomplete, series of abiotic factors. Two chapters are devoted to light, one in general to different aspects of light perception and availability, the second one specifically to UV-B radiation. The following two chapters are concerned with temperature, the first one on the effects of chilling and freezing, the second one on the response to high temperature. We then have three chapters about water: response to drought conditions, to flooding, and to salt stress. The concluding contribution deals with trace metals and the evolution of resistance to extreme heavy metals abundance. The overall theme underlying these writings is to span the whole gamut between the effects that a particular environmental challenge has at the phenotypic level down to the types of physiological reactions the plant puts into place to minimize the abiotic stress, and finally to the molecular mechanisms underlying such physiological responses. This is an emerging trend in modern biology, whereby previously disparate and almost independent disciplines such as molecular biology, physiology, anatomy, and recently even evolutionary biology, contribute to each other and toward the common goal of a better understanding of the functioning of living organisms. This approach is taken in a remarkable even fashion throughout the first part of the book, and makes each chapter a fascinating and useful introduction to a large field of active investigation. I gladly advised a couple of my students who are beginning to shop around for a thesis project to dwell into some of the chapters on abiotic factors.

The story, as I mentioned before, is a bit different for the second part of the volume, dedicated to anthropogenic influences. This is constituted of seven chapters, dealing with allelochemicals, herbicides, polyamines, air pollutants, carbon dioxide, radionuclides, and fire. The tone and structure of these contributions is more uneven. Some are written in a style and with a level of content close to those making up the first part of the volume, and this results in equally compelling introductions to applied fields of research at the plant-human interface. Others, on the other hand, seem more suitable for basic textbooks in plant physiology. For example, I wonder if this is really the most appropriate place for diagrams of the photosynthetic reactions, or for an illustration of the Calvin cycle. Would it not be a better use of space and of the readerís time if the authors would assume such basic knowledge as given and refer the few readers who might need it to introductory texts?

On a different topic, one of the clear advantages of this kind of volume is that it provides the reader with a comprehensive and fairly recent bibliography, extremely useful as a starting point to dig in deeper. Well, there are two problems here, as far as "Plant Ecophysiology" is concerned. First the most recent references are from 1994 (with very few exceptions, usually cited as "in press"), even though the book is dated 1997. It seems that one last round of updates before publication would have been de rigoeur. On top of that, most of the citations are actually for the 1980s, not the 1990s. Far from me the thought of denying the importance of "classic" papers; but, especially given the emphasis on the very recent convergent of molecular and organismal biology, I would have expected a different ratio between older and newer literature citations. The second problem with the references is that there are no titles for the papers cited. This used to be a common practice, and it obviously saves space, but it is a practice that is being abandoned by all the major journals, and for good reasons. Todayís research is a busy activity, with little time to be spared for anything. Knowing the title of a paper might make the difference between going to the library to get it or not, since sometimes the simple context of the citation is not enough to give an idea of the specific value of that paper for the reader.

Overall, "Plant Ecophysiology" is certainly a book which will be useful to anybody interested in plants reactions to environmental challenges, be that from the molecular, physiological, or ecological standpoint. A more coherent, single (or few) author book on the topic, attempting an organic synthesis of the field around ideas instead of topics, would certainly be at least equally welcome. - Massimo Pigliucci, Departments of Botany and of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

Book Reviews: Systematics

Guide to Colorado Wildflowers, volume 2, Mountains. G. K. Guennel. 1995. ISBN 1-56579-119-3. (paper US$24.95) 352 pp. Westcliffe Publishers, Inc., P.O.Box 1261, Englewood, CO 80150. — At first glance the watercolor sketches of each plant catch your eye. You think they are pleasant but not good enough for identification. Then you notice the accompanying excellent color photograph close-ups of flower and other plant details and you realize the two kinds of illustration complement each other well. The paintings give a good sense of the plant as a whole and the color photographs give the necessary details. This combination makes the guide unusual. It also makes you realize the immense amount of time and field work that went into the book since Dr. Guennel was author, photographer and artist. Most field guides divide these tasks among two or three people. It should be a useful book in the field.

There are some 3000 flowering plants in the Colorado flora. From these the author selects, for his two volumes, about 600 species which "the average person might find". Volume 1 covers plants of the Colorado plains and foothills (from 3500 to 8000 feet elevation), and this volume under review includes plants found above 8000 feet in the montane, subalpine, and alpine zones. As the author admits in his preface he interprets "wildflowers" broadly, and includes a few grasses and sedges and some trees and shrubs as well as wildflowers per se.

The plant descriptions are brief but include the common name, scientific name and some synonyms, the plant family, plant kind, size, flowers, fruits, leaves, habitat, flowering time and life zones where found. In the introduction the author explains the book arrangement. "I grouped the plants by color and then I split off trees/shrubs from herbs. Lastly I listed the plants alphabetically by family, and within each family alphabetically by common name." He expands upon this in the text along with a short discussion of Colorado life zones. The book includes a glossary, indexes of common and scientific names, and a bibliography.

It is difficult to produce a really comprehensive field guide to plants of a region. In the Northeast we are fortunate in having two: the Peterson and the Newcomb wildflower guides. Both eliminate grasses and sedges and therefore cover a flora of about 3000 taxa. Each illustrates over 1200 plants, a ratio of about one plant in three. There are several wildflower guides for the Rocky Mountain region, some old, some new. With a flora of probably 4000 taxa even after eliminating grasses, sedges, and trees, these books are all highly selective, and most achieve a coverage ratio of only one to six or seven. For example in the venerable Peterson series: A Field Guide to Rocky Mountain Wildflowers by the Craigheads covers 600 plants and only half are illustrated. The classic Handbook of Rocky Mountain Plants by Ruth Ashton Nelson, 2nd. ed., keys out 970 plants with one third illustrated. Later editions may include more. The recent handsomely illustrated, but slim, three volume set by Dr. Dee Strickler, Prairie Wildflowers, Forest Wildflowers and Alpine Wildflowers together only cover 400 species, as does the equally well illustrated Alpine Wildflowers of the Rocky Mountains by Joseph Duft. In his introduction Guennel says he used more than fifty books to identify Coloradoís plants. He hoped to reduce this need with his new volumes. Their coverage ratio of perhaps one in three is an improvement but I do not think they will eliminate the need for several companion field guides to identify all the plants you are likely to meet in an excursion from the Colorado foothills to Trail Ridge Road. Time will tell. — Mary M. Walker, New England Wild Flower Society Library, Framingham, MA.

Niebla and Vermilacinia (Ramalinaceae) from California and Baja California. Spjut, R.W., 1996. ISSN 0833-1475 (paper, no price given) 208 pp. Sida, Botanica Miscellany: 14. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Inc. — The Californian lichen flora comprises over 1000 taxa, of which many, such as species of Niebla sensu lato occur mainly in coastal regions. These fruticose species colonize soil, rocks and trees and often form a conspicuous component of the vegetation. Within the Ramalinaceae, Niebla sensu lato is distinguished by its cortical anatomy. Prior to 1970, Niebla was assumed to be a rather small genus comprising only four species in North America and Mexico. By 1996, 14 new taxa had been added, of which three are endemic to Mexico. Seven of the new species were described in 1994, nearly doubling the number of species for the genus in North America and Baja California. In 1995, Spjut established the genus Vermilacinia to accommodate taxa that lack a chondroid strand, and whose chemical profiles include mainly terpenes. In this publication, he has now presented a revised taxonomic treatment of the Niebla complex in California and Baja California.

Spjut started this systematic study in the mid 1980s and collected more than 1000 specimens of the Niebla complex in the following ten years. The Niebla complex in California and Baja California is here considered to consist of seventy-two taxa (including one undescribed species), organized into two genera — Niebla and Vermilacinia — with the latter genus divided into two subgenera. Fifty-three of these taxa (74%) are new to science: 36 species and one variety in Niebla and 16 species in Vermilacinia. An overview of the taxonomy of Niebla, Vermilacinia and Ramalina opens the systematic portion of this publication. For each genus, Spjut discusses the species concepts applied prior to presenting the character-state concepts he used. Species descriptions are preceded by a discussion on the variation in morphological and chemical characters in both genera and on the species concepts applied within each genus. Two keys to all 72 taxa are provided. The first key emphasizes morphological characters and uses secondary chemistry mainly to distinguish species. The alternative key relies primarily on chemical attributes derived from thin layer chromatography to define species groups which are then distinguished based on morphological features. The actual species descriptions occupy the next 136 pages. Species are arranged alphabetically within each genus or subgenus. For each species, a description of morphological and chemical characters is presented, and the variation and diagnostic characters are briefly discussed. Type material was examined for all previously published species except for V. procera, V. tuberculata, and V. tigrina. The treatment is richly illustrated and includes a) 11 introductory plates of color photographs of general habitats and species habit, b) illustrations accompanying the keys and 3) black and white photographs of individual species that complement the species descriptions. The photographs are of good quality and appear to be correctly labeled (except for plate 11 C & D). By contrast the drawings, prepared by four different authors, are of rather poor quality, ranging from mere pencil sketches to ink drawings with discontinuous outlines and excessive or inadequate shading. The distribution of the species is briefly described and represented by a list of selected collections; unfortunately maps for individual distributions are not provided. A glossary to the terminology mainly used in the species description and discussion completes this publication.

The taxonomy of Niebla relies on both chemical and morphological characters. Secondary metabolites are primary characters, in the sense that they define species groups. The 42 species of Niebla are arranged into 11 chemical groups of which the three main ones are: the divaricatic acid group (22 species), the sekikaic acid group (10) and salazinic acid group (6). Within these groups, species are differentiated by morphological characters. These morphospecies thus represent morphotypes within a chemical group. Although this approach is compared by the author to a phylogenetic species concept within which chemical characters serve as diagnostic features, a formal discussion of relationships among the species is not given, nor is a discussion on the metabolic relationships among these chemicals provided in support of their taxonomic or phylogenetic use. It is thus not clear whether species within a chemical group are indeed more closely related to each other than are similar morphotypes with distinct chemical profiles. Monophyly of chemical groups is tentatively supported by Spjut by such characters as erect free branches, strong yellowish-pigmented holdfast (in the depsides group), versus interwoven branches and no colored pigmentation of the cortex (depsidone-group). Within each of these two groups, however, morphological differentiation between chemically related sub-groups is however less clear. Morphological characters are not only very variable and thus overlapping between groups, but also very plastic within the chemical groups as morphological differences supporting the taxonomic distinction of some species disappear when these species are growing together. Chemically related species also tend to have similar preferences for substrate-type; how the various substrate types actually differ is not made very clear, however. In summary, morphologically similar but chemically and thus ecologically distinct populations of Niebla are recognized as distinct species. The alternative hypothesis, that species vary morphologically and chemically along an ecological "gradient" is rejected mainly because of its impracticality: morphological character variation could not be broken down into "discrete" classes without the integration of chemical characters. Nevertheless, morphological characters may be indicative of phylogenetic relationships across chemical groupings: "Many species of Niebla within a chemical subgroup appear to have siblings in other chemical subgroups, but morphological differences within species or related chemo-complexes are not parallel." "Not parallel" does not, however, exclude the possibility that morphological variation in species may be overlapping, and may thus represent tendencies correlated with chemical variation. Excessive splitting of morphosyndromes into morphospecies certainly leads to species that are so cryptic (defined by narrow classes of morphological character variation) that addressing relationships based on morphology becomes nearly impossible. Whether these morphotypes should have been recognized at an infraspecific rather than a specific level is uncertain, and subjective in the absence of experimental data defining the species limits in a biological, ecological or phylogenetic scenario. What is needed, and is lacking in this treatment, is a synopsis of the species, with a clear proposal of species relationships within or between chemical or morphological groups.

Relationships among species of Vermilacinia appear much clearer than in Niebla, as they are formally arranged into two subgenera that are best defined by cortical and medullary characters. Eighteen saxicolous species compose the type subgenus in the studied area, whereas subgenus Cylindricaria includes 20 primarily corticolous species. Most species are defined by a particular morphotype rather than a chemotype, and thus a species of Vermilacinia can be represented by a chemosyndrome (a suite of chemotypes). However, morphological intergradation still remains a problem (e.g., among V. polymorpha, V. procera, V. paleoderma and V. reptilioderma) and some species can be identified reliably only by their chemical profile (V. reptilioderma and V. paleoderma are here considered sibling species differing mainly in the nature of their terpenoids).

With this publication, the Niebla complex has moved from obscurity to the forefront of lichenology in western North America. Indeed, with 42 species to its name, Niebla has become one of the largest macrolichen genera in North America including Baja California. Certainly the author deserves credit for his detailed observations, and extensive chemical studies. Whether the taxonomic conclusions drawn from these are biologically, ecologically or phylogenetically meaningful remains to be tested; one earnestly hopes the required studies will be undertaken prior to the description of more taxa in this group. — Bernard Goffinet, Department of Botany, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708

The Biology of Grasses. Chapman, G.P., 1996. ISBN 0-85199-111-4 (cloth US$85) 273 pp. CAB International, 198 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10016 — As a botanist who simply wanted to know more about grasses, I enjoyed this book immensely. In fact, I devoured it. Chapman has a lively, delightful writing style that incorporates metaphor as well as current issues in science and the news. The book surveys grass utility and importance, morphology and development, ecology, reproduction, mating systems, taxonomy, biogeography, and evolution.

The two major themes of the book are 1) the immense morphologic, physiological and ecological diversity found at every taxonomic level in the grass family, and 2) the implications of this diversity to grass taxonomy and phylogeny. Chapman favors the view that the subfamily Bambusoideae, which includes bamboo and rice, is phylogenetically most basal and illustrates nearly every chapter with some example from the bamboos. Chapman also seems to have a fondness for the unusual and exceptional. While this is one of the characteristics that makes the book so delightful, students may need to be reminded of the rarity of such exceptions.

However, some material that one would expect to find in a book titled "The Biology of Grasses" is conspicuously absent. Chapman makes no apologies for this. The back cover calls this book a bridge between introductory texts and technical papers. Chapman explicitly states in the Preface that his intent was not to duplicate material in any of his other well-known grass texts. He calls "The Biology of Grasses" an "individual perspective," a reaction to the abundant grass literature he is expert in, a chance to make connections between narrow fields within grass biology and draw attention to unexplored territories. As such, its coverage of some areas seems shallow while other topics are not included at all. His description of embryo and leaf development is accurate but brief. Inflorescence and floret development is never mentioned. Photosynthesis is discussed only in the context of its mechanistic diversity and the insights it provides into evolutionary relationships. Except for a mention of secondary metabolites, these is no further discussion of grass physiology or biochemistry what so ever. The most glaring omission is the huge amount of research into carbohydrate storage and partitioning in grasses. In some of these areas, Chapman quickly refers the reader to the appropriate reviews and then moves on.

Though there are superb line drawings of grasses to illustrate subfamilies and some of the specifically discussedgrass species, illustrations are missing at other points where they would be helpful, such as the discussion of embryo and leaf development, and the involvement of Tripsacum and teosinte in the evolution of maize. His written descriptions are fabulous and conjured up accurate pictures of plants and their organs in my mind, but I am a plant morphologist. A student may need the extra help of a drawing. His final chapter on maize domestication is quite evocative and very nicely summarizes the competing hypotheses about maize evolution without reference to any of the difficult molecular data on the subject. Botanical and grass-specific terms are used without definition throughout the text. This facilitates the flow of reading and is appropriate to an intermediate-level text, as students can refer to the excellent glossary.

Because of the absence of discussion of carbohydrate storage and partitioning, I would not recommend this book for use in classes with an agronomic focus. However, "The Biology of Grasses" would make a good companion text to a taxonomy or grass systematics manual in an agrostology or grass systematics class. It introduces students to the diversity, value and wonder of grasses, and provides an introduction into how traits other than conventional morphologic and molecular data, such as ecological function, geographic distribution and physiology, can be useful in phylogenetic reconstruction. — Rebecca A. Sherry, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia

Rare Lilies of California. Fiedler, P. L. 1996. ISBN 0-943460-30-1 (paper) California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, California — As a graduate student back at San Francisco State University, I was a teaching assistant for Peggy Fiedler in a non-majors economic botany course. Some of the students concocted a vignette to compare me, their enthusiastic but gritty lab instructor, to Peggy, a polished lecturer and accomplished botanist. It went something like this: In a garden of little people (the students), there lived a gentle fairy princess (the lecturer), and an evil gnome (guess who). Impressions like this, though colorful, are not entirely accurate, at least not always predictive. One of us may remain gnomish, but the other has gone on to put together a solid, quite unfairy-like piece of work in conservation biology.

Rare Lilies is a book by a botanist with a mission. Fiedler sets out to "document and articulate" rarity in the diverse and beautiful California Liliaceae, a large plant family with 34 native genera in California and dozens of species found only in the state. She documents her topic with an appropriate mix of prose, tables, and graphics. She articulates her work to readers through a series of gorgeous full color plates. Fiedler and her illustrator, Catherine M. Watters, combine visual poetry with hard science in examples of species that demonstrate the beauty and the evolutionary complexity of the California lilies.

This is a most attractive book, accessible to non-specialists and useful as well for scientists. Fiedler presents hard questions in soft sentences like, "What makes a lily a lily?" and "What does it mean to be rare?" By asking these questions, she challenges the reader to puzzle out answers for difficult topics such as endemism and relictualism, and their role in an evolutionary framework. More questions go unanswered than resolved as Fiedler outlines the causes and consequences of rarity but significantly, we are invited to construct a model that goes beyond the organisms she studies. We learn about more than lily biogeography and conservation here.

The book has broad appeal for students in many areas of plant biology. Its contents will surely find their way into new textbooks that touch on the subject of floral variation and evolution, patterns of endemism and rarity, and monocot biology and taxonomy. The excellent work of Randy Zebell, which Fiedler highlights throughout the book, was done at SF State while he was struggling to support himself as a graduate student, driving a cab at night. Rare Lilies of California is a testament to the continued ability of the California State University system to produce first rate scientific research as well as accomplished students. It builds on the strong tradition of collaboration between the California Native Plant Society and the academic community. It also illustrates the great and ongoing potential of California as a hotbed of plant evolution. — Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University

Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send e-mail to <>, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly!-Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review
** = book reviewed in this issue

Advances in Photosynthesis, Volume 5, Photosynthesis and the Environment Baker, N.R., ed. 1996. ISBN 0-7923-4316-6 (cloth US$292.50) 491 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 101 Phillip Drive, Norwell MA 02061.

Biotechnology and the Improvement of Forage Legumes McKersie, B. D., and D. C. W. Brown. 1997. ISBN 0-85199-109-2 (cloth US$125) 444 pp. CAB International, 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016.

The Colours of Life: An Introduction to the Chemistry of Porphyrins and Related Compounds Milgrom, L. R. 1997. ISBN 0-19-855962-3 (paper US$39.95) 0-19-855380-3 (cloth US$95) 249 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016.

Conserving Peatlands Parkyn, L., R. E. Stoneman, and H. A. P. Ingrahm. 1997. ISBN 0-85198-998-5 (cloth US$110) 500 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016.

Cyclamen: A Guide for Gardeners, Horticulturists and Botanists Grey-Wilson, C. 1997. ISBN 0-88192-386-9 (cloth US$39.95) 192 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Essential Oil Crops Weiss, E. A. 1997. ISBN 0-85199-137-8 (cloth US$ 135) 600 pp. CAB International, 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016.

The Gardenerís Guide to Growing Irises Stebbins, G. 1997. ISBN 0-88192-388-5 (cloth US$29.95) 160 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods, Volume 19 Setlow, J. K., ed. 1997. ISBN 0-306-45681-8 (cloth US$ 85) 309 pp. Plenum Press, 233 Spring St., New York NY 10013.

Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie X, part 3, Seed Anatomy Werker. E. 1997. ISBN 3-443-14024-6 (cloth US$116) 424 pp. Gebruder Borntraeger, Johannesstr. 3 A, D-70176 Stuttgart, Germany.

Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie XIV, part 4, Microscopic Venation Patterns of Leaves and their Importance in the Distinction of (Tropical) Species Roth, I. 1996. ISBN 3-443-14023-8 (cloth US$ 98) 196 pp. Gebruder Borntraeger, Johannesstr. 3 A, D-70176 Stuttgart, Germany.

Hollies: The Genus Ilex Galle, F. 1997. ISBN 0-88192-380-X (cloth US$59.95) 619 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Intermountain Flora, Volume 3A: Subclass Rosidae (except Fabales) Cronquist, A., N.H. Holmgren, and P. K. Holmgren. 1997. ISBN 0-89327-375-9 (cloth) 446 pp. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-5126.

Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Genetic Analysis Lange, K. 1997 ISBN 0-387-94909-7 (cloth US$ 54.95) 265 pp. Springer Verlag New York 175 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10100.

My Garden in Spring Bowles, E.A. 1997. ISBN 0-88192-375-3 (cloth US$24.95) 308 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

New Flora of the British Isles, Second Edition Stace, C. 1997. ISBN 0-521-58935-5 (plastic US$85) 1130 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Streeet, New York, NY 10011.

New Strategies in Locust Control Krall, S., R. Peveling, and D. BaDiallo, eds. 1997. ISBN 0-8176-5442-9 (cloth US$49.50) 522 pp. Birkhäuser Boston, 675 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge MA 02139.

Nucleic Acid Amplification Technologies: Application to Disease Diagnosis Lee, H., S. Morse, and Ø. Olsvik. 1997. ISBN 0-8176-3921-7 (cloth US$74.50) 286 pp. Birkhäuser Boston, 675 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge MA 02139.

Orchids of the Northeast: A Field Guide Chapman, W. K. 1997. ISBN 0-8156-0342-8 (paper US$17.95) 0-8156-2697-5 (cloth US$39.95) 200 pp. Syracuse University Press, 1600 Jamesville Ave., Syracuse NY 13244-5160.

Oxford Dictionary of Plant Lore Vickery, R. 1997. ISBN 0-19-280053-1 (paper US$17.95) 437 pp. . Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016.

People and the Land Through Time: Linking Ecology and History Russell, E. W. B. 1997. ISBN 0-300-06830-1 (cloth US$35) 308 pp. Yale University Press, P.O. Box 209040, New Haven CT 06520-9040.

Perennial Ground Covers MacKenzie, D. 1997. ISBN 0-88192-368-0 (cloth US$49.95) 400 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants Lüttge, U. 1997. ISBN 3-540-61161-4 (cloth US$45.95) 384 pp. Springer Verlag New York 175 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10100.

Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plant Lipids Williams, J. P., M. U. Khan, and N. W. Lem, eds. 1997. ISBN 0-7923-4379-4 (cloth US$241) 418 pp. . Kluwer Academic Publishers, 101 Phillip Drive, Norwell MA 02061.

Plant Resource Allocation Bazzaz, F. A., and J. Grace. 1997. ISBN 0-12-083490-1 (cloth US$84.95) 303 pp. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego CA 92101-4495.

Slanted Truths. Essays on Gaia, Symbiosis, and Evolution Margulis, L., and D. Sagan. 1997. ISBN 0-387-94927-5 (cloth US$27) 368 pp. Copernicus, Springer Verlag New York 175 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10100.

The Smaller Perennials Elliot, J. 1997. ISBN 0-88192-383-4 (cloth US$29.95) 176 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Transgenic Plants: A Production System for Industrial and Pharmaceutical Proteins Owen, M. R. L., and J. Pen, eds. 1997. ISBN 0-471-96444-1 (paper US$56) 348 pp. John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Ave., New York NY 10158.

Trilliums Case, Jr., F. W., and R. B. Case 1997. ISBN 0-88192-374-5 (cloth US$29.95) 285 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities Laurence, W. F., and R. O Bierregaard, Jr., eds. 1997. ISBN 0-226-46899-2 (paper US$38) 0-226-46898-4 (cloth US$105) 632 pp. University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Ave., Chicago IL 60637.

World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distributions Holm., L., J. Doll, E. Holm, J. Pancho, and J. Herberger. 1997. ISBN 0-471-04701-5 (cloth) 1129 pp. John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Ave., New York NY 10158.

Vascular Plants of Texas: A Comprehensive Checklist including Synonymy, Bibliography, and Index Jones, S. D., J. K. Wipff, and P. M. Montgomery. 1997. ISBN 0-292-74044-1 (cloth US$55) 384 pp. University of Texas Press, P.O. Box 7819, Austin TX 78713-7819.

Visual Revelations: Graphical Tales of Fate and Deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot Wainer, H. 1997. ISBN 0-387-94902-X (cloth US$35) 180 pp. Copernicus, Springer Verlag New York 175 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10100.

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